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Previous studies investigating neuropsychological profiles of cognitive impairment people have found a learning curve can be a useful indicator of AD diagnosis or progression. However, the data on the relationship between amyloid β (Aβ) deposition status and the learning curve in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are limited. In this study, we investigate the role of the learning curve in predicting Aβ deposition status in patients with aMCI.
This is a cross-sectional study of 67 aMCI patients (N = 67; 33 aMCI with amyloid positive (Aβ-PET (+)), and 34 aMCI with amyloid negative (Aβ-PET (-))). All participants underwent Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery for a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and brain MRI. To determine Aβ deposition status, each participant underwent amyloid PET scans using 18F-florbetaben. The learning curve was obtained using immediate recall of Seoul Verbal Learning Test-learning curve (SVLT- learning curve). The association of cognitive test scores and dichotomized Aβ deposition status was examined using logistic regression models in patients with aMCI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to examine the predictive ability of cognitive test to detect Aβ deposition status in aMCI.
Logistic regression models showed that SVLT-learning curve and Rey Complex Figure Test- delayed recall (RCFT-delayed recall) scores were significantly associated with Aβ deposition status. In ROC analysis to assess the predictive power, SVLT-learning curve (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.734, P = 0.001) and RCFT-delayed recall (AUC = 0.739, P = 0.001) independently discriminated Aβ-PET (+) and Aβ-PET (-). The combination of these clinical markers (SVLT-learning curve and RCFT-delayed recall) improved the predictive accuracy of Aβ-PET (+) (AUC = 0.833, P < 0.001).
Our findings of association of Aβ deposition status with SVLT-learning curve and RCFT- delayed recall suggest that these cognitive tests could be a useful screening tool for Aβ deposition status among aMCI patients in resource-limited clinics.
Mood disorders require consistent management of symptoms to prevent recurrences of mood episodes. Circadian rhythm (CR) disruption is a key symptom of mood disorders to be proactively managed to prevent mood episode recurrences. This study aims to predict impending mood episodes recurrences using digital phenotypes related to CR obtained from wearable devices and smartphones.
The study is a multicenter, nationwide, prospective, observational study with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder I, and bipolar II disorder. A total of 495 patients were recruited from eight hospitals in South Korea. Patients were followed up for an average of 279.7 days (a total sample of 75 506 days) with wearable devices and smartphones and with clinical interviews conducted every 3 months. Algorithms predicting impending mood episodes were developed with machine learning. Algorithm-predicted mood episodes were then compared to those identified through face-to-face clinical interviews incorporating ecological momentary assessments of daily mood and energy.
Two hundred seventy mood episodes recurred in 135 subjects during the follow-up period. The prediction accuracies for impending major depressive episodes, manic episodes, and hypomanic episodes for the next 3 days were 90.1, 92.6, and 93.0%, with the area under the curve values of 0.937, 0.957, and 0.963, respectively.
We predicted the onset of mood episode recurrences exclusively using digital phenotypes. Specifically, phenotypes indicating CR misalignment contributed the most to the prediction of episodes recurrences. Our findings suggest that monitoring of CR using digital devices can be useful in preventing and treating mood disorders.
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