Polymer-non-leaded metal (tin, bismuth-tin (BiSn) alloy, and tungsten) composites were prepared to investigate the effectiveness of their X-ray shielding. Films of the composites were found to exhibit excellent X-ray shielding due to the uniform dispersion of metal particles in the polymer matrix, as were fabrics impregnated with the BiSn alloy. The fabricated composites effectively absorb penetrating photons. The preparation of composites with a uniform dispersion and a multilayered structure can limit the formation of pin holes. Multilayered BiSn composites exhibit significantly enhanced shielding. The lamination of a tungsten composite film or a BiSn composite film onto a BiSn-coated layered sheet results in better and more uniform shielding. Thus non-leaded BiSn metal-polymer composites can be used in X-ray shielding applications instead of the lead. One advantage that metal BiSn has over tungsten is its low melting temperature, which means that it can be processed in a normal extruder or in internal mixers such as those used in polymer processing.