To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To compare the characteristics and risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in a nationwide survey, using shared case detection and recording systems.
Retrospective cohort study.
Twenty-six hospitals participating in the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS).
From 2006 to 2009, all patients undergoing THA and TKA in KONIS were enrolled.
SSI occurred in 161 (2.35%) of 6,848 cases (3,422 THAs and 3,426 TKAs). Pooled mean SSI rates were 1.69% and 2.82% for THA and TKA, respectively. Of the cases we examined, 42 (26%) were superficial-incisional SSIs and 119 (74%) were “severe” SSIs; of the latter, 24 (15%) were deep-incisional SSIs and 95 (59%) were organ/space SSIs. In multivariate analysis, a duration of preoperative hospital stay of greater than 3 days was a risk factor for total SSI after both THA and TKA. Diabetes mellitus, revision surgery, prolonged duration of surgery (above the 75th percentile), and the need for surgery due to trauma were independent risk factors for total and severe SSI after THA, while male sex and an operating room without artificial ventilation were independent risk factors for total and severe SSI after TKA. A large volume of surgeries (more than 10 procedures per month) protected against total and severe SSI, but only in patients who underwent TKA.
Risk factors for SSI after arthroplasty differ according to the site of the arthroplasty. Therefore, clinicians should take into account the site of arthroplasty in the analysis of SSI and the development of strategies for reducing SSI.
To evaluate the risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after gastric surgery in patients in Korea.
A nationwide prospective multicenter study.
Twenty university-affiliated hospitals in Korea.
The Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS), a Web-based system, was developed. Patients in 20 Korean hospitals from 2007 to 2009 were prospectively monitored for SSI for up to 30 days after gastric surgery. Demographic data, hospital characteristics, and potential perioperative risk factors were collected and analyzed, using multivariate logistic regression models.
Of the 4,238 case patients monitored, 64.9% (2,752) were male, and mean age (±SD) was 58.8 (±12.3) years. The SSI rates were 2.92, 6.45, and 10.87 per 100 operations for the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system risk index categories of 0, 1, and 2 or 3, respectively. The majority (69.4%) of the SSIs observed were organ or space SSIs. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.67 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09–2.58]), increased operation time (1.20 [1.07–1.34] per 1-hour increase), reoperation (7.27 [3.68–14.38]), combined multiple procedures (1.79 [1.13–2.83]), prophylactic administration of the first antibiotic dose after skin incision (3.00 [1.09–8.23]), and prolonged duration (≥7 days) of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP; 2.70 [1.26–5.64]) were independently associated with increased risk of SSI.
Male sex, inappropriate SAP, and operation-related variables are independent risk factors for SSI after gastric surgery.
To control an outbreak of Shewanella algae and S. putrefaciens infections by identifying the risk factors for infection and transmission.
Matched case-control study.
A university-affiliated tertiary acute care hospital in Seoul, Republic of Korea, with approximately 1,600 beds.
From June 20, 2003, to January 16, 2004, a total of 31 case patients with Shewanella colonization or infection and 62 control patients were enrolled in the study.
Requirement to use single-use measuring cups and standard precautions (including hand washing before and after patient care and use of gloves).
S. algae or S. putrefaciens was isolated from blood, for 9 (29.0%) of 31 patients who acquired one of the organisms; from bile, for 8 (25.8%), and from ascitic fluid, for 8 (25.8%). The attack rate of this outbreak was 5.8% (31 patients infected or colonized, of 534 potentially exposed on ward A) and the pathogenicity of the two species together was 77.4% (24 patients infected, of 31 who acquired the pathogens). The estimated incubation period for Shewanella acquisition was 3–49 days. Using logistic analysis, we identified the following risk factors: presence of external drainage catheters in the hepatobiliary system (odds ratio [OR], 20; P < .001), presence of hepatobiliary disease (OR, 6.4; P < .001), admission to the emergency department of the hospital (OR, 2.9; P = .039), wound classification of “contaminated” or “dirty or infected” (OR, 16.5; P = .012), an American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or higher (OR, 8.0; P = .006), duration of stay in ward A (OR, 1.1; P < .001), and, for women, an age of 60–69 years (OR, 13.3; P = .028). A Shewanella isolate was recovered from the surface of a shared measuring cup, and 12 isolates of S. algae showed the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern.
This Shewanella outbreak had a single-source origin and spread by contact transmission via a contaminated measuring cup. Shewanella species are emerging as potentially serious human pathogens in hospitals and could be included in hospital infection surveillance systems.
To evaluate the clinical features of ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterobacter bacteremia and to examine the risk factors for ciprofloxacin resistance in Enterobacter species isolates causing bacteremia.
A case-control study.
A 1,500-bed, tertiary-care university hospital and referral center.
All patients older than 16 years with Enterobacter species isolated from blood were enrolled. The medical records of 183 patients with clinically significant Enterobacter bacteremia from January 1998 to December 2002 were identified. We compared patients with bacteremia caused by ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates with patients with bacteremia caused by ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates.
Twenty-three (12.6%) of the patients had bacteremia caused by isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin. There were no significant differences in age, gender, underlying diseases, primary site of infection, or Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score between the ciprofloxacin-resistant and the ciprofloxacin-susceptible groups. Broad-spectrum cephalosporin resistance, defined as resistance to cefotaxime or ceftazidime in vitro, was detected in 21 (91.3%) of 23 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates compared with 65 (40.6%) of 160 ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates (P < .001). Multivariate analysis revealed that independent risk factors for ciprofloxacin resistance were the prior receipt of fluoroquinolones (P < .001) and broad-spectrum cephalosporin resistance (P < .001).
In Enterobacter species isolates causing bacteremia, ciprofloxacin resistance was closely associated with the prior receipt of fluoroquinolones and broad-spectrum cephalosporin resistance. The close relationship between ciprofloxacin resistance and broad-spectrum cephalosporin resistance is particularly troublesome because it severely restricts the therapeutic options for Enterobacter species infection.
To evaluate risk factors and treatment outcomes of bloodstream infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP).
Retrospective case-control study. Stored blood isolates of K. pneumoniae were tested for ESBL production by NCCLS guidelines, double-disk synergy test, or both.
A 1,500-bed, tertiary-care university hospital and referral center.
Sixty case-patients with bacteremia due to ESBL-KP were compared with 60 matched control-patients with non-ESBL-KP.
There were no significant differences in age, gender, APACHE II score, or underlying diseases between the groups. Independent risk factors for infections caused by ESBL-KP were urinary catheterization, invasive procedure within the previous 72 hours, and an increasing number of antibiotics administered within the previous 30 days. Complete response rate, evaluated 72 hours after initial antimicrobial therapy, was higher among control-patients (13.3% vs 36.7%; P = .003). Treatment failure rate was higher among case-patients (35.0% vs 15%; P = .011). Overall 30-day mortality rate was 30% for case-patients and 28.3% for control-patients (P = .841). Case-patients who received imipenem or ciprofloxacin as a definitive antibiotic had 10.5% mortality. The mortality rate for initially ineffective therapy was no higher than that for initially effective therapy (9.1% vs 11.1%; P = 1.000), but statistical power was low for evaluating mortality in the absence of septic shock.
For K. pneumoniae bacteremia, patients with ESBL-KP had a higher initial treatment failure rate but did not have higher mortality if antimicrobial therapy was appropriately adjusted in this study with limited statistical power.
To evaluate the outcome of attempted Hickman catheter salvage in neutropenic cancer patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia who were not using antibiotic lock therapy.
Retrospective cohort study.
A university-affiliated, tertiary-care hospital with 1,500 beds for adult patients.
All neutropenic cancer patients who had a Hickman catheter and S. aureus bacteremia (32 episodes in 29 patients) between January 1998 and March 2002.
Salvage attempts were defined as cases where the Hickman catheter was not removed until we obtained the results of follow-up blood cultures performed 48 to 72 hours after starting treatment with antistaphylococcal antibiotics. Salvage was considered to be successful if the Hickman catheter was still in place 3 months later without recurrent bacteremia or death.
Catheter salvage was attempted in 24 (75%) of the 32 episodes. Of the salvage attempts, the success rate was 50% (12 of 24). Salvage attempts were successful in 14% (1 of 7) of the episodes with positive follow-up blood cultures, and in 65% (11 of 17) of those with negative follow-up blood cultures (P = .07). If the analysis is confined to cases with no external signs of catheter infection, salvage attempts were successful in 14% (1 of 7) of the episodes with positive follow-up blood cultures and in 80% (8 of 10) of those with negative follow-up blood cultures (P = .02).
In neutropenic cancer patients with S. aureus bacteremia, attempted catheter salvage without antibiotic lock therapy was successful in 50% of the cases.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.