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To examine the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and tap test response to elucidate the effects of comorbidity of AD in idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH).
Osaka University Hospital.
Patients with possible iNPH underwent a CSF tap test.
Concentrations of amyloid beta (Aβ) 1–40, 1–42, and total tau in CSF were measured. The response of tap test was judged using Timed Up and Go test (TUG), 10-m reciprocation walking test (10MWT), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and iNPH grading scale. The ratio of Aβ1–42 to Aβ1–40 (Aβ42/40 ratio) and total tau concentration was compared between tap test-negative (iNPH-nTT) and -positive (iNPH-pTT) patients.
We identified 27 patients as iNPH-nTT and 81 as iNPH-pTT. Aβ42/40 ratio was significantly lower (mean [SD] = 0.063 [0.026] vs. 0.083 [0.036], p = 0.008), and total tau in CSF was significantly higher (mean [SD] = 385.6 [237.2] vs. 293.6 [165.0], p = 0.028) in iNPH-nTT than in iNPH-pTT. Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that low Aβ42/40 ratio was significantly associated with the negativity of the tap test. The response of cognition was significantly related to Aβ42/40 ratio. The association between Aβ42/40 ratio and tap test response, especially in cognition, remained after adjusting for disease duration and severity at baseline.
A low CSF Aβ42/40 ratio is associated with a poorer cognitive response, but not gait and urinary response, to a tap test in iNPH. Even if CSF biomarkers suggest AD comorbidity, treatment with iNPH may be effective for gait and urinary dysfunction.
Functional brain imaging represents cerebrovascular status, neuronal status, and neuronetwork status, and plays an increasingly important role in the evaluation of vascular cognitive impairment or vascular dementia. In this article, the roles of functional brain imaging are discussed in evaluation of subcortical lesions disrupting cortico-subcortical circuits and in the study of white-matter changes in dementia. Also mentioned is an ongoing clinical trial of extracranial-intracranial artery bypass surgery for hemispheric hemodynamic misery perfusion where single-photon emission tomography is used as a surrogate measure.
In an earlier study we showed that a powerful emotional experience (the Kobe earthquake) reinforced memory retention in patients with Alzheimer's disease, but we could not control factors other than the emotional impact of the earthquake.
To test our previous findings in a controlled experimental study.
Recall tests consisting of two short stories were administered to 34 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 10 normal subjects. The two stories were identical except for one passage in each story: one was emotionally charged (arousing story) and the other (neutral story) was not.
In both groups, the emotionally charged passage in the arousing story was remembered better than the counterpart in the neutral story. In addition, the extent of the memory improvement was similar in the subjects and in the controls.
The results provide further evidence that emotional arousal enhances declarative memory in patients with Alzheimer's disease, and give a clue to the management of people with dementia.
Emotional memory is a special category of memory for events arousing strong emotions. To investigate the effects of emotional involvement on memory retention in individuals with Alzheimer's disease we studied peoples' memories of distressing experiences during a devastating earthquake.
Fifty-one subjects with probable Alzheimer's disease who experienced the Kobe earthquake at home in the greater Kobe area were studied. Memories of the earthquake were assessed 6 and 10 weeks after the disaster in semi-structured interviews, and were compared with memories of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination given after the earthquake.
Forty-four (86.3%) of the subjects remembered the earthquake and 16 (31.4%) of subjects remembered the MRI experience. Factual content of the earthquake was lost in most of the subjects.
Fear reinforces memory retention of an episode in subjects with Alzheimer's disease but does not enhance retention of its context, despite repeated exposure to the information.
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