The purpose of this study was to estimate the number of siblings in each Japanese family with multiple birth children using two sets of census data, from 1990 and 1995. The mean number of siblings for singletons was 2.3 in 1990 (2.4 in 1995), 2.9 (2.9) for one set of twins, 4.6 (4.5) for two sets of twins, and 3.5 (3.3) for one set of triplets. For birth order of multiples, the highest mean sibling number was 4.4 for one set of twins (the middle), 7.5 for two sets of twins (the middle-middle), and 4.3 for one set of triplets (the last). The mean sibling number was slightly higher for like-sexed twins and triplets than in unlike-sexed twins and triplets. The mean sibling number was highest in the Okinawa District, among nine districts (0.4 for singletons, 0.6 for one set of twins, 1.0 for two sets of twins and 0.6 for triplets). The current study of the number of siblings in each family with multiple birth children will help provide data for designing programs to help support multiple-birth families. The method of using census data on multiple births might result in a system to analyze nationwide data on multiple birth children if there is no national registry of multiple births after live births in any country.