Person-centered methods represent an important advance in the simultaneous examination of multiple indicators of neuroendocrine functioning and may facilitate a more nuanced understanding of the impact of child maltreatment on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis dysregulation. The aims of the present study were threefold: (a) identify naturally occurring patterns of diurnal cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) regulation among a sample of N = 1,258 children with and without histories of maltreatment, (b) investigate which neuroendocrine profiles characterize children with exposure to maltreatment, and (c) examine which profiles are related to adaptive outcomes and symptomatology among children. Cortisol and DHEA were sampled three times per day (9 a.m., 12 p.m., and 4 p.m.) across 5 and 2 days, respectively. Four profiles of cortisol and DHEA regulation were identified. Among females, a pattern marked by high cortisol and low DHEA was associated with more pervasive maltreatment experiences. Furthermore, we found evidence of adaptive interpersonal resilience such that children with maltreatment exposure who evidenced this pattern of high cortisol and low DHEA were viewed as more likeable than maltreated children with other neuroendocrine patterns. Finally, results pointed to higher levels of internalizing symptoms among children who displayed a profile marked by average cortisol and high DHEA.