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In this article, we consider the role that academics play in the global illicit trade in cultural objects. Academics connect sources to buyers and influence market values by publishing looted and stolen cultural objects (passive facilitation) and by collaborating with market players, including by collecting artifacts themselves (active facilitation). Their actions shape market desire, changing what is targeted for looting, theft, and illicit trading across borders. However, this crucial facilitative role often goes unnoticed or unaddressed in scholarship on collecting, white collar crime, and the illicit market in cultural objects. This article explores the importance of academic facilitation through a case study of the career of Mary Slusser, a renowned American scholar of Nepali art and art history.
Cannabis use has been linked to poorer episodic memory. However, little is known about whether depression and sex may interact as potential moderators of this association, particularly among adolescents. The current study addresses this by examining interactions between depression symptoms and sex on the association between cannabis use and episodic memory in a large sample of adolescents.
Cross-sectional data from 360 adolescents (Mage = 17.38, SD = .75) were analyzed at the final assessment wave of a two-year longitudinal study. We used the Drug Use History Questionnaire to assess for lifetime cannabis use, and the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Fourth edition to assess the number of depression symptoms in the past year. Subtests from the Wechsler Memory Scale, Fourth Edition and the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition were used to assess episodic memory performance.
The effect of the three-way interaction among cannabis use, depression symptoms, and sex did not have a significant impact on episodic memory performance. However, follow-up analyses revealed a significant effect of the two-way interaction of cannabis use and depression symptoms on episodic memory, such that associations between cannabis use and episodic memory were only significant at lower and average levels of depression symptoms.
Contrary to our hypotheses, we found that as depression symptoms increased, the negative association between cannabis use and episodic memory diminished. Given the use of a predominantly subsyndromic sample, future studies should attempt to replicate findings among individuals with more severe depression.
ON THE FOURTH DAY of December 1893, Joseph Friedrich Nicolaus Bornmüller bent down and picked leaves from a low shrub with small white flowers. Bornmüller was on a botanical collecting trip through the Middle East, and he had just discovered a new species of pennycress. The dried specimen of Thlaspi syriacum he preserved on a sheet of paper is now housed in the herbarium of the Berlin-Dahlem Botanical Museum of the Freie Universität Berlin. These crumbling leaves are the holotype of the Thlaspi syriacum species. The word holotype is derived from the Greek ὅƛος—“whole, entire.” Bornmüller's sample was the basis for the description of the whole species. Every subsequent identification of an individual plant as Thlaspi syriacum or not Thlaspi syriacum is, in theory, based on whether or not that individual conforms to the appearance of the leaves Bornmüller plucked somewhere in what is now Syria. Holotypes are artificial. Bornmüller's hand was not guided to the most perfect specimen of Thlaspi syriacum. Rather, he anointed one individual plant to be the representation of a schema of botanical collecting and categorizing. This artificial creation and use of a holotype works for botanists, since they (usually) care more about the ways in which individual plants of the same species are similar rather than the ways in which they are different. They ignore the differences between individual embodiments (this patch of Thlaspi syriacum by the side of the road) and the abstract generalization (the Berlin holotype).
Cultural artifacts do not admit of so easy a negation of the value of the individual. We would rightly hesitate to discard even very similar cultural artifacts. Even reprintings of the same text can each have different value. The text of Alexander Pope's poem “The Rape of the Lock” is the same in the volume of John Bell's Travelling Poetic Library, bound in elaborately gilt calfskin and purchased in Paris in October 1785 by Thomas Jefferson for his twelve-year old daughter Martha, and in the battered paperback that I bought for a dollar from the bins of a used bookstore. But each of these volumes has a different history and a different set of relationships with the people who produced and used them. Some of these histories are more interesting than others.
Although there is strong evidence supporting the association between childhood adversity and symptomatology during adolescence, the extent to which adolescents present with distinct patterns of co-occurring post-traumatic stress (PTS) and externalizing symptoms remains unclear. Additionally, prior research suggests that experiencing nonviolent, negative life events may be more salient risk factors for developing some forms of psychopathology than exposure to violence. The current study used latent profile analysis to identify subgroups of early adolescents with distinct patterns of PTS, physical aggression, delinquency, and substance use, and examined subgroup differences in exposure to three forms of violent and nonviolent childhood adversity. Participants were a predominantly low-income, African American sample of 2,722 urban middle school students (M age = 12.9, 51% female). We identified four symptom profiles: low symptoms (83%), some externalizing (8%), high PTS (6%), and co-occurring PTS and externalizing symptoms (3%). A higher frequency of witnessing violence was associated with increased odds of membership in subgroups with externalizing symptoms, whereas a higher frequency of nonviolent, negative life events was associated with increased odds of membership in subgroups with PTS symptoms. Interventions aimed to address childhood adversity may be most effective when modules addressing both PTS and externalizing symptoms are incorporated.
Healthcare personnel with severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were interviewed to describe activities and practices in and outside the workplace. Among 2,625 healthcare personnel, workplace-related factors that may increase infection risk were more common among nursing-home personnel than hospital personnel, whereas selected factors outside the workplace were more common among hospital personnel.
Background: Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed drugs in nursing homes; urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a frequent indication. Although there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of UTIs, various criteria have been developed to inform and standardize nursing home prescribing decisions, with the goal of reducing unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Using different published criteria designed to guide decisions on initiating treatment of UTIs (ie, symptomatic, catheter-associated, and uncomplicated cystitis), our objective was to assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing among NH residents. Methods: In 2017, the CDC Emerging Infections Program (EIP) performed a prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections and antibiotic use in 161 nursing homes from 10 states: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. EIP staff reviewed resident medical records to collect demographic and clinical information, infection signs, symptoms, and diagnostic testing documented on the day an antibiotic was initiated and 6 days prior. We applied 4 criteria to determine whether initiation of treatment for UTI was supported: (1) the Loeb minimum clinical criteria (Loeb); (2) the Suspected UTI Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation tool (UTI SBAR tool); (3) adaptation of Infectious Diseases Society of America UTI treatment guidelines for nursing home residents (Crnich & Drinka); and (4) diagnostic criteria for uncomplicated cystitis (cystitis consensus) (Fig. 1). We calculated the percentage of residents for whom initiating UTI treatment was appropriate by these criteria. Results: Of 248 residents for whom UTI treatment was initiated in the nursing home, the median age was 79 years [IQR, 19], 63% were female, and 35% were admitted for postacute care. There was substantial variability in the percentage of residents with antibiotic initiation classified as appropriate by each of the criteria, ranging from 8% for the cystitis consensus, to 27% for Loeb, to 33% for the UTI SBAR tool, to 51% for Crnich and Drinka (Fig. 2). Conclusions: Appropriate initiation of UTI treatment among nursing home residents remained low regardless of criteria used. At best only half of antibiotic treatment met published prescribing criteria. Although insufficient documentation of infection signs, symptoms and testing may have contributed to the low percentages observed, adequate documentation in the medical record to support prescribing should be standard practice, as outlined in the CDC Core Elements of Antibiotic Stewardship for nursing homes. Standardized UTI prescribing criteria should be incorporated into nursing home stewardship activities to improve the assessment and documentation of symptomatic UTI and to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use.
We surveyed 399 US acute care hospitals regarding availability of on-site Legionella testing; 300 (75.2%) did not offer Legionella testing on site. Availability varied according to hospital size and geographic location. On-site access to testing may improve detection of Legionnaires disease and inform patient management and prevention efforts.