The ability to accurately and precisely measure the thickness of ultrathin (∼ 3 nm) dielectric films, used as gate dielectrics in integrated circuits, is critical to the continued success of the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Many metrology tools have been applied to this problem in the past, but recent research has focussed on ellipsometry, x-ray reflectivity, secondary-ion mass spectrometry, capacitance-voltage curves, medium energy ion scattering, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and grazing incidence x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (GIXPS). Unfortunately, these techniques disagree about a given film's thickness by amounts larger than their individual precisions. To support the statistical process control methodologies used in production wafer fabrication, these disagreements need to be investigated and the true accuracy and precision of the tools need to be determined. This work compares the ability of two techniques, HRTEM and GIXPS, to measure the thickness of silicon oxynitride films on silicon substrates.