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The available tools and approaches to inform conservation decisions commonly assume detailed distribution data. We examine how well-established ecological concepts about patterns in local richness and community turnover can help overcome data limitations when planning future protected areas. To inform our analyses, we surveyed tree species in protected areas in the southern Appalachian Mountains in the eastern USA. We used the survey data to construct predictive models for alpha and beta diversity based on readily observed biophysical variables and combined them to create a heuristic that could predict among-site richness in trees (gamma diversity). The predictive models suggest that site elevation and latitude in this montane system explain much of the variation in alpha and beta diversity in tree species. We tested how well resulting protected areas would represent species if a conservation planner lacking detailed species inventories for candidate sites were to rely only on our alpha, beta and gamma diversity predictions. Our approach selected sites that, when aggregated, covered a large proportion of the overall species pool. The combined gamma diversity models performed even better when we also accounted for the cost of protecting sites. Our results demonstrate that classic community biogeography concepts remain highly relevant to conservation practice today.
Background: Weekly surveillance to identify neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infants with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) nasal colonization was performed using Remel Spectra MRSA chromogenic media. An increased MRSA colonization rate from baseline was detected in 2019, prompting additional review of all positive MRSA NICU screening cultures from 2019. Methods: A subset of 23 positive cultures were interrogated in detail. Species-level identification was confirmed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) with a Bruker Biotyper. Penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) testing was performed using the Alere culture colony test, and cefoxitin and oxacillin susceptibility were assessed via Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion methods (for the purpose of this analysis, oxacillin zone sizes 18 mm were considered susceptible). Molecular detection of mecA and mecC genes using PCR was performed. Results: All 23 isolates in the subset group were confirmed as S. aureus based on MALDI-TOF testing. Moreover, 8 isolates (35%) were confirmed as MRSA based on cefoxitin susceptibility, positive rapid PBP2a testing, and mecA PCR results. Overall, 15 isolates (65%) tested cefoxitin-susceptible and PBP2a negative with negative mecA and mecC gene testing. Of these, 1 (7%) tested oxacillin-susceptible based on disk-diffusion testing, consistent with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). The remaining 14 isolates (93%) tested oxacillin resistant based on oxacillin zone size. Conclusions: Our findings indicate the detection of mecA/mecC negative S. aureus isolates demonstrating oxacillin resistance and growth on Remel Spectra MRSA chromogenic media. These results have important implications for infection prevention surveillance efforts to detect MRSA and raise questions regarding optimal antibiotic therapy in patients with isolates displaying this phenotype.
Based on the data from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS), we statistically study the photometric properties of globular clusters (GCs), ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs) and dwarf nuclei in the Virgo core (M87) region. We found an obvious negative color (g - z) gradient in GC system associate with M87, i.e. GCs in the outer regions are bluer. However, such color gradient does not exist in UCD system, neither in dwarf nuclei system around M87. In addition, we found that many UCDs are surrounded by extended, low surface brightness envelopes. The dwarf nuclei and UCDs show different spatial distributions from GCs, with dwarf nuclei and UCDs (especially for the UCDs with visible envelopes) lying at larger distances to the Virgo center. These results support the view that UCDs (at least for a fraction of UCDs) are more tied to dwarf nuclei than to GCs.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To create a searchable public registry of all Quality Improvement (QI) projects. To incentivize the medical professionals at UF Health to initiate quality improvement projects by reducing startup burden and providing a path to publishing results. To reduce the review effort performed by the internal review board on projects that are quality improvement Versus research. To foster publication of completed quality improvement projects. To assist the UF Health Sebastian Ferrero Office of Clinical Quality & Patient Safety in managing quality improvement across the hospital system. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This project used a variant of the spiral software development model and principles from the ADDIE instructional design process for the creation of a registry that is web based. To understand the current registration process and management of quality projects in the UF Health system a needs assessment was performed with the UF Health Sebastian Ferrero Office of Clinical Quality & Patient Safety to gather project requirements. Biweekly meetings were held between the Quality Improvement office and the Clinical and Translational Science – Informatics and Technology teams during the entire project. Our primary goal was to collect just enough information to answer the basic questions of who is doing which QI project, what department are they from, what are the most basic details about the type of project and who is involved. We also wanted to create incentive in the user group to try to find an existing project to join or to commit the details of their proposed new project to a data registry for others to find to reduce the amount of duplicate QI projects. We created a series of design templates for further customization and feature discovery. We then proceed with the development of the registry using a Python web development framework called Django, which is a technology that powers Pinterest and the Washington Post Web sites. The application is broken down into 2 main components (i) data input, where information is collected from clinical staff, Nurses, Pharmacists, Residents, and Doctors on what quality improvement projects they intend to complete and (ii) project registry, where completed or “registered” projects can be viewed and searched publicly. The registry consists of a quality investigator profile that lists contact information, expertise, and areas of interest. A dashboard allows for the creation and review of quality improvement projects. A search function enables certain quality project details to be publicly accessible to encourage collaboration. We developed the Registry Matching Algorithm which is based on the Jaccard similarity coefficient that uses quality project features to find similar quality projects. The algorithm allows for quality investigators to find existing or previous quality improvement projects to encourage collaboration and to reduce repeat projects. We also developed the QIPR Approver Algorithm that guides the investigator through a series of questions that allows an appropriate quality project to get approved to start without the need for human intervention. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A product of this project is an open source software package that is freely available on GitHub for distribution to other health systems under the Apache 2.0 open source license. Adoption of the Quality Improvement Project Registry and promotion of it to the intended audience are important factors for the success of this registry. Thanks goes to the UW-Madison and their QI/Program Evaluation Self-Certification Tool (https://uwmadison.co1.qualtrics.com/SE/?SID=SV_3lVeNuKe8FhKc73) used as example and inspiration for this project. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This registry was created to help understand the impact of improved management of quality projects in a hospital system. The ultimate result will be to reduce time to approve quality improvement projects, increase collaboration across the UF Health Hospital system, reduce redundancy of quality improvement projects and translate more projects into publications.
We evaluated the feasibility of incorporating integrated care (IC) for smoking cessation into routine care for homeless veterans at seven Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers and the utility of the learning collaborative (LC) model in facilitating implementation. The goal of IC is for clinicians to provide smoking cessation concurrent with other clinical duties. The LC model utilises multidisciplinary teams and recognised field experts to develop methods for accelerating the use of evidence-based treatments. Multidisciplinary teams comprising 34 (of about 175) staff members from seven VA homeless provider teams participated. Via self-report questionnaires, we assessed providers’ perceptions of the LC and the number of providers delivering IC. Nineteen of thirty-four providers (54%) reported delivering IC at the end of training and at 10-months. Providers rated the face-to-face trainings and collaborative team trainings as the most helpful LC components. Barriers to the use of the LC included lack of leadership support and the lack of ability to electronically track progress through the electronic medical record. Additional research, quality improvement, and policy changes at higher administrative levels are needed to identify methods to sustain the use of LC among providers serving homeless veterans.
In this commentary, we contest Van Lange and colleagues' central claim that “countries closer to the equator are generally more violent.” We point to the lack of credible empirical evidence for this assertion and suggest that the CLASH model uses the language of science to lend false credibility to a problematic sociocultural discourse.
The Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) materials are potential candidates as cladding tubes for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors. The nano-oxides are finely dispersed within the grains and confer excellent mechanical properties to these alloys. Hence, assessing nano-particle stability under irradiation remains crucial to guarantee safe use of these materials. Although neutron irradiation remains a binding and challenging experimental study to conduct, difficulties can be overcome by ion beam processing. Ion beam processing of the ODS material allows to identify the radiation-induced Ostwald ripening as the mechanism governing the nano-particle response under irradiation. The result is the increase in size and a decrease in density of the finely dispersed Y2Ti2O7 nano-particles. Under neutron irradiation, radiation-induced Ostwald ripening appears to be less effective since a slight growth of nano-particles is observed. Further, our approach shows that nanoparticle growth kinetics should scale as φ1/3, φ being the radiation flux. This suggests that the low irradiation flux is at the origin of the slower growth kinetics of the neutron irradiated particles. Both neutron and ion irradiation induce a modification of the nanoparticles/matrix interfaces which are generally flat and sharp prior to irradiation and present steps after irradiation. This could alter the nano-particle coarsening during irradiation.
Hospital evacuations that occur during, or as a result of, infrastructure outages are complicated and demanding. Loss of infrastructure services can initiate a chain of events with corresponding management challenges. This report describes a modeling case study of the 2001 evacuation of the Memorial Hermann Hospital in Houston, Texas (USA). The study uses a model designed to track such cascading events following loss of infrastructure services and to identify the staff, resources, and operational adaptations required to sustain patient care and/or conduct an evacuation. The model is based on the assumption that a hospital’s primary mission is to provide necessary medical care to all of its patients, even when critical infrastructure services to the hospital and surrounding areas are disrupted. Model logic evaluates the hospital’s ability to provide an adequate level of care for all of its patients throughout a period of disruption. If hospital resources are insufficient to provide such care, the model recommends an evacuation. Model features also provide information to support evacuation and resource allocation decisions for optimizing care over the entire population of patients. This report documents the application of the model to a scenario designed to resemble the 2001 evacuation of the Memorial Hermann Hospital, demonstrating the model’s ability to recreate the timeline of an actual evacuation. The model is also applied to scenarios demonstrating how its output can inform evacuation planning activities and timing.
VugrinED, VerziSJ, FinleyPD, TurnquistMA, GriffinAR, RicciKA, Wyte-LakeT. Modeling Evacuation of a Hospital without Electric Power. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(3):1-9
The aim of this study was to clarify the trophic patterns of the key species Pleuragramma antarctica in the Dumont d’Urville Sea, through its development and possible changes according to sampling locations. Variability in diet composition of larvae, juvenile and adult P. antarctica was analysed using fatty acid markers. Analysis of lipid class in P. antarctica reflected lipid accumulation with increasing size at all sampling stations. The fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol highlighted ontogenetic changes in the diet. Phytoplankton markers, such as C16PUFA:C16 and EPA:DHA ratios >1, and carnivorous markers in larvae suggested an omnivorous diet. Comparison between the fatty acid signature of P. antarctica older stages (juveniles and adults) and zooplankton species using OPLS-discriminant analysis indicated that juveniles fed mainly on euphausiid larvae and to a minor extent on copepods, and confirmed that non-herbivorous copepods were the main prey for adults. Our results suggest that different feeding patterns and a generalist strategy in P. antarctica with juveniles feeding on bigger prey than adults, probably as a result of prey availability according to their vertical segregation pattern.
JANNUS (Joint Accelerators for Nanosciences and Nuclear Simulation), the unique triple beam facility in Europe, offers the possibility to produce three ion beams simultaneously for nuclear recoil damage and implantation of a large array of ions for well-controlled modeling-oriented experiments. The first triple beam irradiation was performed in March 2010. Along with irradiation developments, continuous efforts have been made to implement ex situ and in situ characterization tools. In this study, we set out the present status of the JANNUS facility of the Saclay site. We focus on the instrumentation used for conducting multi-ion beam irradiations and implantations as well as for characterizing bombarded samples. On-line control of irradiation parameters, in situ modification monitoring using Raman spectroscopy or ion beam induced luminescence, and ex situ characterization by ion beam surface analysis [Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA)] of implanted samples are detailed. Some examples of single, dual, and triple beam irradiation configurations are presented. Access to the facility is provided by the French network EMIR for national and international users (http://emir.in2p3.fr/).
A dual experimental and numerical top-down approach is applied to investigate the link between osteocyte morphology and mechanical perception of their environment at the progenitor and mature stages. The numerical model is based on explicit tissue morphology discretization to identify bone diffuse damage at the cellular scale. The in vitro experimental model presents a live allograft bone system where a patient progenitor or mature osteocytes were reseeded in fresh human donor cortical bone tissues subjected to mechanical loading. The live systems behaved mechanically as fresh bone and the cells spatially reorganized in vitro as in vivo. The system under mechanical load also showed an adaptation of the calcium membrane transport rate to the expected in vivo mechanical load detected by bone cells at different stages of differentiation.
Consumption of carbohydrate-containing foods leads to transient postprandial rises in blood glucose concentrations that vary between food types. Higher postprandial glycaemic exposures have particularly been implicated in the development of chronic cardiometabolic diseases. Reducing such diet-related exposures may be beneficial not only for diabetic patients but also for the general population. A variety of markers have been used to track different aspects of glycaemic exposures, with most of the relevant knowledge derived from diabetic patients. The assessment of glycaemic exposures among the non-diabetic population may require other, more sensitive markers. The present report summarises key messages of presentations and related discussions from a workshop organised by Unilever intended to consider currently applied markers of glycaemic exposure. The particular focus of the meeting was to identify the potential applicability of glycaemic exposure markers for studying dietary effects in the non-diabetic population. Workshop participants concluded that markers of glycaemic exposures are sparsely used in intervention studies among non-diabetic populations. Continuous glucose monitoring remains the optimal approach to directly assess glycaemic exposure. Markers of glycaemic exposure such as glycated Hb, fructosamine, glycated albumin, 1,5-anhydroglucitol and advanced glycation end products can be preferred dependent on the aspect of interest (period of exposure and glucose variability). For all the markers of glycaemia, the responsiveness to interventions will probably be smaller among the non-diabetic than among the diabetic population. Further validation and acceptance of existing glycaemic exposure markers applied among the non-diabetic population would aid food innovation and better design of dietary interventions targeting glycaemic exposure.
Numerous factors are thought to be advantageous for non-native language learning although they are typically investigated in isolation, and the interaction between them is not understood. Firstly, bilinguals are claimed to acquire a third language easier than monolinguals acquire a second. Secondly, closely related languages may be easier to learn. Thirdly, certain phonetic features could be universally more difficult to acquire. We tested these hypotheses used as explanations by having adults learn vocabularies that differentiated words using foreign phonetic contrasts. In Experiment 1, Mandarin–English bilinguals outlearned English monolinguals, and the Mandarin-like (retroflex) artificial language was better learned than the English-like (fricative voicing). In Experiment 2, bilinguals again outlearned English monolinguals for the Mandarin-like artificial language. However, only Korean–English bilinguals showed an advantage for the more difficult Korean-like (lenition) language. Bilinguals, relative to monolinguals, show a general advantage when learning ‘easy’ contrasts, but phonetic similarity to the native language is useful for learning universally ‘difficult’ contrasts.