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Healthcare personnel (HCP) with unprotected exposures to aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) on patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at risk of infection with severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A retrospective review at an academic medical center demonstrated an infection rate of <1% among HCP involved in AGPs without a respirator and/or eye protection.
Increased frequency and occurrence of herbicide-resistant biotypes heightens the need for alternative wild oat management strategies. This study aimed to exploit the height differential between wild oat and crops by targeting wild oat between panicle emergence and seed shed timing. Two field studies were conducted either in Lacombe, AB, or Lacombe, AB and Saskatoon, SK, from 2015 to 2017. In the first study, we compared panicle removal methods: hand clipping, use of a hedge trimmer, and a selective herbicide crop topping application to a weedy check and an industry standard in-crop herbicide application in wheat. These treatments were tested early (at panicle emergence), late (at initiation of seed shed), or in combination at one location over 3 yr. In the second study, we investigated optimal timing of panicle removal via a hedge trimmer with weekly removals in comparison to a weedy check in wheat and lentil. This study was conducted at two locations, Lacombe, AB, and Saskatoon, SK, over 3 yr. Among all the tested methods, the early crop topping treatment consistently had the largest impact on wild oat density, dockage, seedbank, and subsequent year crop yield. The early (at panicle emergence) or combination of early and late (at initiation of seed shed) treatments tended to reduce wild oat populations the following season the most compared to the late treatments. Subsequent wild oat populations were not influenced by panicle removal timing, but only by crop and location interactions. Panicle removal timing did significantly affect wild oat dockage in the year of treatment, but no consistent optimal timing could be identified. However, the two studies together highlight additional questions to be investigated, as well as the opportunity to manage wild oat seedbank inputs at the panicle emergence stage of the wild oat lifecycle.
Wild oat (Avena fatua L.) is one of the most problematic weed species in western Canada due to widespread populations, herbicide resistance, and seed dormancy. In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and especially in shorter crops such as lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.), A. fatua seed panicles elongate above the crop canopy, which can facilitate physical cutting of the panicles (clipping) to reduce viable seed return to the seedbank. However, the viability of A. fatua seed at the time of panicle elongation is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the viability of A. fatua seed at successive time intervals after elongation above a wheat or lentil crop canopy. A 2-yr panicle clipping and removal study in wheat and lentil was conducted in Lacombe, AB, and Saskatoon, SK, in 2015 and 2016 to determine the onset of viability in A. fatua seeds at successive clipping intervals. Manual panicle clipping of A. fatua panicles above each crop canopy began when the majority of panicles were visible above respective crop canopies and continued weekly until seed shed began. At the initiation of panicle clipping, A. fatua seed viability was between 0% and 10%. By the last clipping treatment (approximately 6 to 7 wk after elongation), 95% of the A. fatua seeds were viable. Seed moisture and awn angle were not good predictors of A. fatua viability, and therefore were unlikely to provide effective tools to estimate appropriate timing for implementation of A. fatua clipping as a management technique. Based on A. fatua seed viability, earlier clipping of A. fatua is likely to be more effective in terms of population management and easier to implement in shorter crops such as lentil. Investigations into long-term effects of clipping on A. fatua populations are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this management strategy on A. fatua.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola is a widely grown crop across western Canada and has quickly become a prolific volunteer weed. Glyphosate-resistant soybean is rapidly gaining acreage in western Canada. Thus, there is a need to evaluate herbicide options to manage volunteer GR canola in GR soybean crops. We conducted an experiment to evaluate the efficacy of various PRE and POST herbicides applied sequentially to volunteer GR canola and to evaluate soybean injury caused by these herbicides. Trials were conducted across Saskatchewan and Manitoba in 2014 and 2015. All treatments provided a range of suppression (>70%) to control (>80%) of volunteer canola. All treatments with the exception of the glyphosate-treated control reduced aboveground canola biomass by an average of 96%. As well, canola seed contamination was reduced from 36% to less than 5% when a PRE and POST herbicide were both used. Moreover, all combinations of herbicides used had excellent crop safety (<10%). All PRE and POST herbicide combinations provided better control of volunteer canola compared with the glyphosate-only control, but tribenuron followed by bentazon and tribenuron followed by imazamox plus bentazon provided solutions that were low cost, currently available (registered in western Canada), and had the potential to minimize development of herbicide resistance in other weeds.
In recent years, soybean acreage has increased significantly in western Canada. One of the challenges associated with growing soybean in western Canada is the control of volunteer glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola, because most soybean cultivars are also glyphosate resistant. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of soybean seeding rate and planting date on competition with volunteer canola. We also attempted to determine how high seeding rate could be raised while still being economically feasible for producers. Soybean was seeded at five different seeding rates (targeted 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 plants m−2) and three planting dates (targeted mid-May, late May, and early June) at four sites across western Canada in 2014 and 2015. Soybean yield consistently increased with higher seeding rates, whereas volunteer canola biomass decreased. Planting date generally produced variable results across site-years. An economic analysis determined that the optimal rate was 40 to 60 plants m−2, depending on market price, and the optimal planting date range was from May 20 to June 1.
Flax yield can be severely reduced by weeds. The combination of limited herbicide options and the spread of herbicide-resistant weeds across the prairies has resulted in a need for more weed control options for flax producers. The objective of this research was to evaluate the tolerance of flax to topramezone, pyroxasulfone, flumioxazin, and fluthiacet-methyl applied alone as well as in a mix with currently registered herbicides. These herbicides were applied alone and in mixtures at the 1X and 2X rates and compared with three industry standards and one nontreated control. This experiment was conducted at Carman, MB, and Saskatoon, SK, as a randomized complete block with four replications. Data were collected for crop population, crop height, yield, and thousand-seed weight. Ratings for crop damage (phytotoxicity) were also taken at three separate time intervals: 7 to 14, 21 to 28, and 56+ d after treatment. Crop tolerance to these herbicides varied between site-years. This was largely attributed to differences in spring moisture conditions and the differences in soil characteristics between sites. Herbicide injury was transient. Hence, no herbicide or combination of herbicides significantly impacted crop yield consistently. Flumioxazin was the least promising herbicide evaluated, as it caused severe crop damage (>90%) when conditions were conducive. Overall, flax had excellent tolerance to fluthiacet-methyl, pyroxasulfone, and topramezone. Flax had excellent crop safety to the combination of pyroxasulfone + sulfentrazone. However, mixing fluthiacet-methyl and topramezone with MCPA and bromoxynil, respectively, increased crop damage and would not be recommended.
In response to concerns about acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor–resistant weeds in wheat production systems, we explored the efficacy of managing Bromus spp., downy and Japanese bromes, in a winter wheat system using alternative herbicide treatments applied in either fall or spring. Trials were established at Lethbridge and Kipp, Alberta, and Scott, Saskatchewan, Canada over three growing seasons (2012–2014) to compare the efficacy of pyroxasulfone (a soil-applied very-long-chain fatty acid elongase inhibitor; WSSA Group 15) and flumioxazin (a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor; WSSA Group 14) against industry-standard ALS-inhibiting herbicides for downy and Japanese brome control. Winter wheat injury from herbicide application was minor, with the exception of flucarbazone application at Scott. Bromus spp. control was greatest with pyroxsulam and all herbicide treatments containing pyroxasulfone. Downy and Japanese bromes were controlled least by thiencarbazone and flumioxazin, respectively, whereas Bromus spp. had intermediate responses to the other herbicides tested. Herbicides applied in fall resulted in reduced winter wheat yield relative to the spring applications. Overall, pyroxasulfone or pyroxsulam provided the most efficacious Bromus spp. control compared with the other herbicides and consistently maintained optimal winter wheat yields. Therefore, pyroxasulfone could facilitate management of Bromus spp. resistant to ALS inhibitors in winter wheat in the southern growing regions of western Canada. Improved weed control and delayed herbicide resistance may be achieved when pyroxasulfone is applied in combination with flumioxazin.
As chemical management options for weeds become increasingly limited due to selection for herbicide resistance, investigation of additional nonchemical tools becomes necessary. Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) is a methodology of weed management that targets and destroys weed seeds that are otherwise dispersed by harvesters following threshing. It is not known whether problem weeds in western Canada retain their seeds in sufficient quantities until harvest at a height suitable for collection. A study was conducted at three sites over 2 yr to determine whether retention and height criteria were met by wild oat, false cleavers, and volunteer canola. Wild oat consistently shed seeds early, but seed retention was variable, averaging 56% at the time of wheat swathing, with continued losses until direct harvest of wheat and fababean. The majority of retained seeds were >45 cm above ground level, suitable for collection. Cleavers seed retention was highly variable by site-year, but generally greater than wild oat. The majority of seed was retained >15 cm above ground level and would be considered collectable. Canola seed typically had >95% retention, with the majority of seed retained >15 cm above ground level. The suitability ranking of the species for management with HWSC was canola>cleavers>wild oat. Efficacy of HWSC systems in western Canada will depend on the target species and site- and year-specific environmental conditions.
The escalating evolution of weed species resistant to acetolactase synthase (ALS)-inhibitor herbicides makes alternative weed control strategies necessary for field crops that are dependent on this herbicide group. A fully integrated strategy that combined increased crop seeding rates (2X or 4X recommended), mechanical weed control with a minimum-tillage rotary hoe, and reduced-rate non–ALS inhibitor herbicides was compared with herbicides, rotary hoe, and seeding rates alone as a method of controlling ALS inhibitor–tolerant Indian mustard as a model weed. The full-rate herbicide treatment had the lowest weed biomass (98% reduction) and the highest yield of all treatments in 3 of 4 site-years, regardless of seeding rate. The fully integrated treatment at the 4X seeding rate had weed suppression rates equal to the full herbicide treatment at the recommended seeding rate. The fully integrated and reduced-rate herbicide treatments at the 4X seeding rate reduced weed biomass by 89% and 83%, respectively, compared with the control at the recommended seeding rate. The rotary hoe treatment alone resulted in poor weed control (≤38%), even at the highest seeding rate. Fully integrated and reduced-rate herbicide treatments at 2X and 4X seeding rates had yields equal to those of the full herbicide treatment at the recommended seeding rate. Partially or fully integrated weed control strategies that combine increased crop seeding rates and reduced-rate non–ALS inhibitor herbicides, with or without the use of a rotary hoe, can control weeds resistant to ALS-inhibitor herbicides, while maintaining crop yields similar to those achieved with full-rate herbicides. However, combining increased seeding rate, reduced-rate herbicides, and mechanical rotary hoe treatment into a fully integrated strategy maximized weed control, while reducing reliance on and selection pressure against any single weed control tactic.
Concern over the development of herbicide-resistant weeds has led to interest in integrated weed management systems that reduce selection pressure by utilizing mechanical and cultural weed control practices in addition to herbicides. Increasing crop seeding rate increases crop competitive ability and thus can enhance herbicide efficacy. However, it is unknown how increasing the seeding rate affects an herbicide’s efficacy. The objective of this study was to examine the interaction between increasing seeding rate and herbicide dose to control weeds. To meet this objective, the herbicide fluthiacet-methyl was applied to field-grown lentil, with Indian mustard, a proxy for wild mustard, used as a model weed. The experiment was a factorial design with four lentil seeding rates and seven herbicide rates. Overall the herbicide dose response was altered by changing lentil seeding rate. Increasing lentil seeding rate decreased the weed biomass production when herbicides were not applied. In two of the four site-years, increasing lentil seeding rate lowered the herbicide ED50, the dose required to result in a 50% reduction in weed biomass. Increasing the crop seeding rate altered the dose response to provide greater weed control at lower herbicide rates compared with normal crop seeding rates. Increased seeding rates also resulted in higher and more stable crop seed yields across a wider range of herbicide dosages. These results suggest that dose–response models can be used to evaluate the efficacy of other weed management practices that can interact with herbicide performance.
A 2-yr (2009 to 2010), no-till (direct-seeded) “follow-up” study was conducted at five western Canada sites to determine weed interference impacts and barley and canola yield recovery after 4 yr of variable crop inputs (seed, fertilizer, herbicide). During the initial period of the study (2005 to 2008), applying fertilizer in the absence of herbicides was often worse than applying no optimal inputs; in the former case, weed biomass levels were at the highest levels (2,788 to 4,294 kg ha−1), possibly due to better utilization of nutrients by the weeds than by the crops. After optimal inputs were restored (standard treatment), most barley and canola plots recovered to optimal yield levels after 1 yr. However, 4 yr with all optimal inputs but herbicides led to only 77% yield recovery for both crops. At most sites, when all inputs were restored for 2 yr, all plots yielded similarly to the standard treatment combination. Yield “recovery” occurred despite high weed biomass levels (> 4,000 kg ha−1) prior to the first recovery year and despite high wild oat seedbank levels (> 7,000 seeds m−2) at the end of the second recovery year. In relatively competitive narrow-row crops such as barley and canola, the negative effects of high soil weed seedbanks can be mitigated if growers facilitate healthy crop canopies with appropriate seed and fertilizer rates in combination with judicious herbicide applications to adequately manage recruited weeds.
MKH 6562 is a new acetolactate synthase inhibitor herbicide that would provide an alternative to control wild oat. Three experiments were conducted at Scott, SK, Canada, from 1996 to 1999 to evaluate MKH 6562 rates (20 and 30 g ai/ha), carrier volumes (30, 50, and 100 L/ha), time of applications (two- to three-leaf and three- to four-leaf stages of wild oat), and broadleaf weed herbicide tank mixtures. Reduced wild oat control (lower visual rating of percent control and higher fresh weight) often occurred when MKH 6562 was applied at a rate of 20 vs. 30 g/ha, with carrier volumes of 30 vs. 50 and 100 L/ha, and at the three- to four-leaf vs. two- to three-leaf stages of wild oat. Wild oat control generally was lower for MKH 6562 tank mixed with dicamba + mecoprop + MCPA 1:1:4.4 and bromoxynil + MCPA 1:1 compared with MKH 6562 applied alone or tank mixed with other broadleaf herbicides. MKH 6562 tank mixed with MCPA, and to a lesser extent 2,4-D, resulted in decreased wild oat control when applied at the three- to four-leaf stage of wild oat, but not at the two- to three-leaf stage. Wheat grain yield usually was not affected by MKH 6562 rate and carrier volume. Yield was 7% lower when MKH 6562 was tank mixed with dicamba + mecoprop + MCPA or fluroxypyr + 2,4-D and was 8% lower when MKH 6562 was applied in a mixture with 2,4-D formulations or bromoxynil + MCPA at the three- to four-leaf stage compared with the two- to three-leaf stage. Similar yields were achieved when MKH 6562 was applied alone at both leaf stages of wild oat. Wild oat control and wheat yield with MKH 6562 were as good as or better than with ICIA 0604 and imazamethabenz and were as good as or poorer than with CGA 184927. MKH 6562 provides adequate control of wild oat in wheat when applied early with the recommended carrier volume. Satisfactory control may be achieved with reduced rates if wild oat infestations are light.
Growing crops that exhibit a high level of competition with weeds increases opportunities to practice integrated weed management and reduce herbicide inputs. The recent development and market dominance of hybrid canola cultivars provides an opportunity to reassess the relative competitive ability of canola cultivars with small-grain cereals. Direct-seeded (no-till) experiments were conducted at five western Canada locations from 2006 to 2008 to compare the competitive ability of canola cultivars vs. small-grain cereals. The relative competitive ability of the species and cultivars was determined by assessing monocot and dicot weed biomass at different times throughout the growing season as well as oat (simulated weed) seed production. Under most conditions, but especially under warm and relatively dry environments, barley cultivars had the greatest relative competitive ability. Rye and triticale were also highly competitive species under most environmental conditions. Canada Prairie Spring Red wheat and Canada Western Red Spring wheat cultivars usually were the least competitive cereal crops, but there were exceptions in some environments. Canola hybrids were more competitive than open-pollinated canola cultivars. More importantly, under cool, low growing degree day conditions, canola hybrids were as competitive as barley, especially with dicot weeds. Under most conditions, hybrid canola growers on the Canadian Prairies are well advised to avoid the additional selection pressure inherent with a second in-crop herbicide application. Combining competitive cultivars of any species with optimal agronomic practices that facilitate crop health will enhance cropping system sustainability and allow growers to extend the life of their valuable herbicide tools.
Field trials were initiated in fall 2011 to determine the potential of pyroxasulfone to control acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor-resistant weeds in field pea. Pyroxasulfone was applied in split-plot trials at five locations in western Canada using fall and PRE spring applications of 0 to 400 g ai ha−1. Trial locations were chosen with a range of soil organic matter content: 2.9, 4.3, 5.5, 10.5, and 10.6% at Scott, Kernen, Kinsella, Melfort, and Ellerslie, respectively. The herbicide dose required to reduce biomass by 50% (ED50) in false cleavers ranged between 53 and 395 g ha−1 at Scott and Ellerslie, respectively. Wild oat ED50s varied between 0.54 g ha−1 at Scott in the fall and 410 g ai ha−1 in the spring at Melfort. ED50s for wild oat and false cleavers varied by 7.4- and 746-fold, respectively, depending primarily on the organic matter content at the trial location. The effect of application timing was not consistent. Significant yield reductions and pea injury occurred at 150 and 100 g ha−1 and higher at Kernen and Scott, respectively. Low organic matter and high precipitation levels at these locations indicates increased herbicide activity under these conditions. Pyroxasulfone may allow control of ALS inhibitor-resistant false cleavers and wild oat; however, locations with high soil organic matter will require higher rates than those with low organic matter for similar control levels.
Over 90% of Canadian kochia populations are resistant to acetolactate
synthase (ALS)– inhibiting herbicides. We questioned whether the target
site–based resistance could affect plant growth and competitiveness.
Homozygous F2 herbicide-resistant (HR) kochia plants with an
amino acid substitution at Trp574 (sources: Alberta [AB],
Saskatchewan [SK], and Manitoba [MB]), or Pro197 (MB, AB with two
populations) were grown in replacement series with homozygous F2
herbicide-susceptible (HS) plants from the corresponding heterogeneous
population (total: six populations). In pure stands, growth of HR plants
from AB and SK was similar to that of HS plants, regardless of mutation;
conversely, MB2-HR plants (Trp574Leu) developed more slowly and
were taller than MB2-HS plants. Final dry weight of HR plants in pure stands
was similar across all six populations, whereas that for HS plants in pure
stands and HR–HS plants in mixed stands (50–50%) varied with population.
Results for AB and SK populations suggest little impact of either ALS
mutation on kochia growth, whereas those for MB lines would suggest an
unidentified factor (or factors) affecting the HS, HR, or both biotypes. The
variable response within and between lines, and across HS biotypes
highlights the importance of including populations of various origins and
multiple susceptible controls in HR biotype studies.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) giant ragweed, horseweed, and common ragweed were
confirmed in southwestern Ontario, Canada in 2008, 2010, and 2011,
respectively. In the western prairie provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan,
GR (plus acetolactate synthase inhibitor-resistant) kochia was discovered in
2011. This symposium paper estimates the environmental impact (EI) of the
top herbicide treatments or programs used to manage these GR weed species in
the major field crops grown in each region. For each herbicide treatment, EI
(per ha basis) was calculated as the environmental impact quotient (EIQ),
which quantifies the relative potential risk of pesticide active ingredients
on human and ecological health based on risk components to farm workers,
consumers, and the environment, multiplied by the application rate (kg ai
ha−1). Total EI is defined as EI (per ha basis) multiplied by
the application area (i.e., land area affected by a GR weed). It was assumed
that all herbicide treatments would supplement the continued usage of
glyphosate because of its broad spectrum weed control. For the control of
these GR weeds, most treatments contain auxinic or protoporphyrinogen
oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicides. The majority of auxinic herbicide
treatments result in low (EI ≤ 10) to moderate (11 to 20) EI, whereas all
treatments of PPO inhibitors have low EI. Total EI of GR horseweed and
kochia will generally be greater than that of giant or common ragweed
because of rapid seed dispersal. For recommended herbicide treatments to
control GR weeds (and herbicide-resistant weeds in general), EI data should
be routinely included with cost and site of action in weed control extension
publications and software, so that growers have the information needed to
assess the EI of their actions.
Efficient natural dispersal of herbicide-resistance alleles via seed and pollen can markedly accelerate the incidence of herbicide-resistant weed populations across an agroecoregion. Studies were conducted in western Canada in 2014 and 2015 to investigate pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow in kochia. Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) from glyphosate-resistant (GR) to non-GR kochia was quantified in a field trial (hub and spoke design) at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Seed-mediated gene flow of acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor-resistant kochia as a function of tumbleweed speed and distance was estimated in cereal stubble fields at Lethbridge, Alberta and Scott, Saskatchewan. Regression analysis indicated that outcrossing from GR to adjacent non-GR kochia ranged from 5.3 to 7.5%, declining exponentially to 0.1 to 0.4% at 96 m distance. However, PMGF was significantly influenced by prevailing wind direction during pollination (maximum of 11 to 17% outcrossing down-wind). Seed dropped by tumbleweeds varied with distance and plant speed, approaching 90% or more (ca. 100,000 seeds or more) at distances of up to 1,000 m and plant speeds of up to 300 cm s–1. This study highlights the efficient proximal (pollen) and distal (seed) gene movement of this important GR weed.
The objective of this study was to determine if the presence of two acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicide residues in different Saskatchewan soils would result in additive, synergistic, or antagonistic interactions. This was determined through field trials where herbicides were applied sequentially over the course of 2 yr. The herbicides examined in these experiments were imazamethabenz, flucarbazone, sulfosulfuron, and florasulam, each in combination with imazamox and imazethapyr. The phytotoxicity and persistence of the herbicides in soil was assessed using an oriental mustard root inhibition bioassay. The determination of herbicide interaction was made through the comparison of the experimentally observed values to theoretically expected values derived from a mathematical equation. On the basis of the bioassay analysis, it was found that the herbicide residue combinations resulting from sequentially applied ALS-inhibiting herbicides in the three soils produced additive injury effects rather than synergistic or antagonistic interactions.
The inclusion of competitive crop cultivars in crop rotations is an
important integrated weed management (IWM) tool. However, competitiveness is
often not considered a priority for breeding or cultivar selection by
growers. Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is often considered a
poor competitor with weeds, but it is not known whether competitiveness
varies among semileafless cultivars. The objectives of this study were to
determine if semileafless field pea cultivars vary in their ability to
compete and/or withstand competition, as well as to identify aboveground
trait(s) that may be associated with increased competitive ability. Field
experiments were conducted in 2012 and 2013 at three locations in western
Canada. Fourteen semileafless field pea cultivars were included in the study
representing four different market classes. Cultivars were grown either in
the presence or absence of model weeds (wheat and canola), and competitive
ability of the cultivars was determined based on their ability to withstand
competition (AWC) and their ability to compete (AC). Crop yield, weed
biomass and weed fecundity varied among sites but not years. Cultivars
exhibited inconsistent differences in competitive ability, although cv.
Reward consistently exhibited the lowest AC and AWC. None of the traits
measured in this study correlated highly with competitive ability. However,
the highest-yielding cultivars generally were those that had the highest AC,
whereas cultivars that ranked highest for AWC were associated with lower
weed fecundity. Ranking the competitive ability of field pea cultivars could
be an important IWM tool for growers and agronomists.
Competitive crops or cultivars can be an important component of integrated weed management systems. A study was conducted from 2003 to 2006 at four sites across semiarid prairie ecoregions in western Canada to investigate the weed-suppression ability of canola and mustard cultivars. Four open-pollinated canola cultivars, four hybrid canola cultivars, two canola-quality mustard cultivars, two oriental mustard cultivars, and two yellow mustard cultivars were grown in competition with indigenous weed communities. Yellow mustard was best able to suppress weed growth, followed in decreasing order of weed competitiveness by oriental mustard and hybrid canola, open-pollinated canola, and canola-quality mustard. Competitive response of cultivars, assessed by weed biomass suppression, was negatively correlated with time to crop emergence and positively correlated with early-season crop biomass accumulation (prior to bolting) and plant height.