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The logistic birth and death process is perhaps the simplest stochastic population model that has both density-dependent reproduction and a phase transition, and a lot can be learned about the process by studying its extinction time,
, as a function of system size n. A number of existing results describe the scaling of
for various choices of reproductive rate
and initial population
as a function of n. We collect and complete this picture, obtaining a complete classification of all sequences
for which there exist rescaling parameters
converges in distribution as
, and identifying the limits in each case.
The stacked contact process is a three-state spin system that describes the co-evolution of a population of hosts together with their symbionts. In a nutshell, the hosts evolve according to a contact process while the symbionts evolve according to a contact process on the dynamic subset of the lattice occupied by the host population, indicating that the symbiont can only live within a host. This paper is concerned with a generalization of this system in which the symbionts may affect the fitness of the hosts by either decreasing (pathogen) or increasing (mutualist) their birth rate. Standard coupling arguments are first used to compare the process with other interacting particle systems and deduce the long-term behavior of the host–symbiont system in several parameter regions. The spatial model is also compared with its mean-field approximation as studied in detail by Foxall (2019). Our main result focuses on the case where unassociated hosts have a supercritical birth rate whereas hosts associated to a pathogen have a subcritical birth rate. In this case, the mean-field model predicts coexistence of the hosts and their pathogens provided the infection rate is large enough. For the spatial model, however, only the hosts survive on the one-dimensional integer lattice.
The susceptible→exposed→infectious→susceptible (SEIS) model is well known in mathematical epidemiology as a model of infection in which there is a latent period between the moment of infection and the onset of infectiousness. The compartment model is well studied, but the corresponding particle system has so far received no attention. For the particle system model in one spatial dimension, we give upper and lower bounds on the critical values, prove convergence of critical values in the limit of small and large latent time, and identify a limiting process to which the SEIS model converges in the limit of large latent time.
We consider a class of multi-type particle systems whose structure is similar to that of a contact process and show that additivity is equivalent to the existence of a dual process, extending a result of Harris. We prove a necessary and sufficient condition for the model to preserve positive correlations. We then show that complete convergence on Zd holds for a large subclass of models including the two-stage contact process and a household model, and give examples.
In this paper, we continue the work started by Steve Krone on the two-stage contact process. We give a simplified proof of the duality relation and answer most of the open questions posed in Krone (1999). We also fill in the details of an incomplete proof.
A version of the contact process (effectively an SIS model) on a finite set of sites is considered in which there is the possibility of spontaneous infection. A companion process is also considered in which spontaneous infection does not occur from the disease-free state. Monotonicity with respect to parameters and initial data is established, and conditions for irreducibility and exponential convergence of the processes are given. For the spontaneous process, a set of approximating equations is derived, and its properties investigated.
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