In Ethiopia, barley is used to make various types of foods, and home-made and industrial beverages. The various kinds of end-use of barley grain by rural people in two districts of West Shewa are reported. According to farmers, no other cereal crop can be processed into so many different forms of food. At least 17 kinds of foods and beverages, which are consumed in the form of whole-grain snacks, sauces, soups, drinks and baked foods, were reported. Some are mainly served on special occasions like annual ceremonies and cultural gatherings, while others are served as main dishes. Black- and purple-grained barleys are preferred for malting and home-made alcoholic drinks, whereas white-grained types are used for baking and roasting. Each landrace has its own inherent property that makes it suitable for at least one end-use. Since ancient times, barley foods are also known to farmers as remedies and traditional medicines for many kinds of diseases. The various kinds of utilizations of barley and its value in the socio-cultural lifestyles of farmers play vital roles for the on-farm maintenance of different landraces in West Shewa.