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Misdiagnosis of bacterial pneumonia increases risk of exposure to inappropriate antibiotics and adverse events. We developed a diagnosis calculator (https://calculator.testingwisely.com) to inform clinical diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia using objective indicators, including incidence of disease, risk factors, and sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests, that were identified through literature review.
Interrupted time series segmented regression was conducted to trend antibiotic use and multidrug-resistant gram-negative (MDRGN) acquisition relative to COVID-19 in an academic hospital. Total antibiotic use and antibiotic use related to pneumonia was higher in the period after the onset of COVID-19 compared to the similar calendar period in 2019. Furthermore, MDRGN acquisition increased 3% for every increase in positive COVID-19 tests per week.
Background: In 2018, the Maryland Department of Health, in collaboration with the University of Maryland and Johns Hopkins University, created the Statewide Prevention and Reduction of Clostridioides difficile (SPARC) collaborative to reduce C. difficile as specified in Healthy People 2020. Methods: The SPARC collaborative recruited hospitals contributing most cases to statewide C. difficile standardized infection ratio (SIR), according to data reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). SPARC developed intervention bundles around 4 domains: infection prevention, environmental cleaning, and diagnostic and antimicrobial stewardship. Each facility completed a self-assessment followed by an on-site, day-long, peer-to-peer (P2P) evaluation with 8–12 SPARC subject matter experts (SMEs) representing each domain. The SMEs met with hospital executive leadership and then led 4 domain-based group discussions with relevant hospital team leaders. To identify policy and practice gaps, SMEs visited hospital inpatient units for informal interviews with frontline staff. In a closing session, SPARC SMEs, hospital executives, and team leaders reconvened to discuss preliminary findings. This included review of covert observation data (hand hygiene, personal protective equipment compliance, environmental cleaning) obtained by SPARC team 1–2 weeks prior. Final SPARC P2P written recommendations guided development of customized interventions at each hospital. SPARC provided continuous support (follow up phone calls, educational webinars, technical support, didactic training for antimicrobial stewardship pharmacists) to enhance facility-specific implementation. For every quarter, we categorized C. difficile NHSN data for each Maryland hospital into “SPARC” or “non-SPARC” based on participation status. Using negative binomial mixed models, we analyzed difference-in-difference of pre- and postincidence rate ratios (IRRs) for SPARC and non-SPARC hospitals, which allowed estimation of change attributable to SPARC participation independent of other time-varying factors. Results: Overall, 13 of 48 (27%) hospitals in Maryland participated in the intervention. The baseline SIR for all Maryland hospitals was 0.92, and the post-SPARC SIR was 0.67. The SPARC hospitals had a greater reduction in hospital-onset C. difficile incidence; 8.6 and 4.3 events per 10,000 patient days for baseline and most recent quarter, respectively. For non-SPARC hospitals, these hospital-onset C. difficile incidences were 5.1 preintervention and 4.3 postintervention. We found a statistically significant difference-in-difference between SPARC and non-SPARC hospital C. difficile reduction rates (ratio of IRR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.44−0.89; P = .01). Conclusions: The Maryland SPARC collaborative, a public health-academic partnership, was associated with a 25% reduction in the Maryland C. difficile SIR. Hospitals participating in SPARC demonstrated significantly reduced C. difficile incidences to match that of high-performing hospitals in Maryland.
Background: In October 2013, the University of Maryland Medical Center established a formal antibiotic prophylaxis protocol for patients undergoing ventricular assist device (VAD) placement, replacing a previous system of various broad-spectrum antibiotic combinations typically for prolonged durations based on surgeon preference. This new protocol consisted of a standardized regimen of 72 hours of vancomycin and ceftriaxone after the procedure. The objective of this project was to evaluate the rate of surgical site infection (SSI) related to VAD placement to ensure that implementing the new protocol did not cause an increase in SSI rates. Methods: The study was a retrospective cohort study of patients who had undergone VAD placement before the protocol change (January 1, 2011, to October 1, 2013) and after the change (October 1, 2013, to November 15, 2015). The primary outcomes was the difference in SSI rate before and after the protocol change using CDC NHSN definitions. Pertinent data points of interest included reason for VAD placement, duration/type of antibiotics used, delayed sternal closure, SSI, characterization of infection (bloodstream, driveline, or pocket), organism identified on culture and mortality at 30 days and 1 year. SSI rates were assessed using the Fischer exact test, and descriptive statistics were used for other outcome variables. Results: In total, 75 patients were included before the protocol and 46 after the protocol change. Overall, 27% and 17% of patients were on therapeutic antibiotics prior to the VAD placement, respectively (P = 0.23). Also, 8 (6.6%) patients in the preintervention group had an SSI compared to 1 patient (0.8%) in the postintervention group (P = .15). Adherence to the protocol was suboptimal, with 27% of patients in the postintervention group receiving non–protocol-adherent antibiotics and 65% of patients receiving antibiotics >96 hours postoperatively. When evaluating the patients collectively, SSI rates were the same when antibiotics were discontinued <72 hours postoperatively versus when antibiotics were continued beyond 72 hours postoperatively or were not given at all postoperatively (3.1% vs 10.7% vs 0%; P = .24). SSI rates were also no different among patients who received cefazolin monotherapy (0%), vancomycin and ceftriaxone (2.7%), vancomycin and piperacillin tazobactam (2%), and other antibiotic combinations (7.7%) for surgical prophylaxis (P = 0.1). Conclusions: No change in SSI rates was noted after a protocol change narrowing the spectrum and duration of antibiotic prophylaxis was implemented. Evaluation of optimal surgical prophylaxis in this patient population is difficult due to low event rates and frequent therapeutic indications for antibiotics outside the standard prophylaxis. Despite these challenges, this study supports the safety of studying SSI prophylaxis reduction in the VAD population. Further studies are reasonable and warranted.
SHEA endorses adhering to the recommendations by the CDC and ACIP for immunizations of all children and adults. All persons providing clinical care should be familiar with these recommendations and should routinely assess immunization compliance of their patients and strongly recommend all routine immunizations to patients. All healthcare personnel (HCP) should be immunized against vaccine-preventable diseases as recommended by the CDC/ACIP (unless immunity is demonstrated by another recommended method). SHEA endorses the policy that immunization should be a condition of employment or functioning (students, contract workers, volunteers, etc) at a healthcare facility. Only recognized medical contraindications should be accepted for not receiving recommended immunizations.
Documentation of antibiotic indication provides helpful information for antimicrobial stewardship, but accuracy is not understood. Review of 396 antibiotic orders in a pediatric ICU and adult medicine step-down unit found 90% agreement between provider-selected indication and independent review. Prompts to enter antibiotic indication during order entry provide largely accurate information.
Peer comparison has potential as an effective antimicrobial stewardship intervention in the inpatient setting. We report a new metric, days of therapy per 100 service days, for comparing antibiotic utilization. Among 14 prescribers on the primary infectious diseases service during a 6-month period, we identified 1 outlier for each anti-MRSA agent.
To assess antimicrobial utilization before and after a change in urine culture ordering practice in adult intensive care units (ICUs) whereby urine cultures were only performed when pyuria was detected.
A 700-bed academic medical center
Patients admitted to any adult ICU
Aggregate data for all adult ICUs were obtained for population-level antimicrobial use (days of therapy [DOT]), urine cultures performed, and bacteriuria, all measured per 1,000 patient days before the intervention (January–December 2012) and after the intervention (January–December 2013). These data were compared using interrupted time series negative binomial regression. Randomly selected patient charts from the population of adult ICU patients with orders for urine culture in the presence of indwelling or recently removed urinary catheters were reviewed for demographic, clinical, and antimicrobial use characteristics, and pre- and post-intervention data were compared.
Statistically significant reductions were observed in aggregate monthly rates of urine cultures performed and bacteriuria detected but not in DOT. At the patient level, compared with the pre-intervention group (n=250), in the post-intervention group (n=250), fewer patients started a new antimicrobial therapy based on urine culture results (23% vs 41%, P=.002), but no difference in the mean total DOT was observed.
A change in urine-culture ordering practice was associated with a decrease in the percentage of patients starting a new antimicrobial therapy based on the index urine-culture order but not in total duration of antimicrobial use in adult ICUs. Other drivers of antimicrobial use in ICU patients need to be evaluated by antimicrobial stewardship teams.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(4):448–454
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