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We used a self-reporting system to compare symptom frequency of hospital personnel with coronavirus disease 2019 before and after the emergence of the Omicron variant. Omicron was more likely to result in asymptomatic carriage (7% vs 12%; P = .009), and fewer symptoms were observed in those with booster vaccination.
In this retrospective study of 105 severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)–infected cancer patients with longitudinal nasopharyngeal sampling, the duration of viral shedding and time to attain cycle threshold >30 was longer in patients with hematologic malignancy than in those with solid tumors. These findings have important public health implications.
Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is prevalent in pediatric oncology patients, but the transmission risk to peers is unknown. In 224 children with CDI, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified only 7 alleged transmission events (18%) originating from children <3 years old. None of these events were corroborated by WGS.
Oncolytic viral immunotherapy is an emerging treatment modality for cancer that exploits in vivo replication and other viral properties to enhance immune killing of malignant cells. The potential for horizontal transmission of native or engineered oncolytic viruses creates several unique infection control challenges. In 2015, talimogene laherparepvec (TVEC) became the first agent in this class to gain FDA approval for treatment of melanoma, and several others are being developed. Although some data on the transmissibility of TVEC are available from clinical studies, the aftermarket or real-world experience remains limited. We conducted a PUBMED-based search of the medical literature focusing on the safety and risk of TVEC transmission to close contacts including healthcare workers. The findings are summarized in this review and are intended to provide infection preventionists with practical guidance on handling issues related to administration and care of patients receiving TVEC. Additionally, we describe the current mechanism for evaluating the risk related to similar new agents entering clinical trials at our institution. Development of standarized approaches for the safe administration and precautions for ongoing care, especially in immunocompromised patients, are essential to support the broad adoption of this novel therapy.
To determine the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) environmental disinfection system on rates of hospital-acquired vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) and Clostridium difficile.
Using active surveillance and an interrupted time-series design, hospital-acquired acquisition of VRE and C. difficile on a bone marrow transplant (BMT) unit were examined before and after implementation of terminal disinfection with UV on all rooms regardless of isolation status of patients. The main outcomes were hospital-based acquisition measured through (1) active surveillance: admission, weekly, and discharge screening for VRE and toxigenic C. difficile (TCD) and (2) clinical surveillance: incidence of VRE and CDI on the unit.
Bone marrow transplant unit at a tertiary-care cancer center.
Stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients.
Terminal disinfection of all rooms with UV regardless of isolation status of patients.
During the 20-month study period, 579 patients had 704 admissions to the BMT unit, and 2,160 surveillance tests were performed. No change in level or trend in the incidence of VRE (trend incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81–1.14; level IRR, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.37–1.18) or C. difficile (trend IRR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.89–1.31; level IRR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.13–2.11) was observed after the intervention.
Utilization of UV disinfection to supplement routine terminal cleaning of rooms was not effective in reducing hospital-acquired VRE and C. difficile among SCT recipients.
Two distinct clusters of gastroenteritis due to Salmonellae and Entamoeba histolytica (EH) were identified using a multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) at a tertiary-care cancer center. Despite temporo-spatial overlap, our investigation did not corroborate transmission or true infection. In clinical practice, GPPs may render false-positive results.
To determine the role of unit-based transmission that accounts for cases of early Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) during hospitalization for allogeneic stem cell transplant.
Stem cell transplant unit at a tertiary care cancer center.
Serially collected stool from patients admitted for transplant was screened for toxigenic C. difficile through the hospital stay and genotyping was performed by multilocus sequence typing. In addition, isolates retrieved from cases of CDI that occurred in other patients hospitalized on the same unit were similarly characterized. Transmission links were established by time-space clustering of cases and carriers of shared toxigenic C. difficile strains.
During the 27-month period, 1,099 samples from 264 patients were screened, 69 of which had evidence of toxigenic C. difficile; 52 patients developed CDI and 17 were nonsymptomatic carriers. For the 52 cases, 41 had evidence of toxigenic C. difficile on the first study sample obtained within a week of admission, among which 22 were positive within the first 48 hours. A total of 24 sequence types were isolated from this group; 1 patient had infection with the NAP1 strain. A total of 11 patients had microbiologic evidence of acquisition; donor source could be established in half of these cases.
Most cases of CDI after stem cell transplant represent delayed onset disease in nonsymptomatic carriers. Transmission on stem cell transplant unit was confirmed in 19% of early CDI cases in our cohort with a probable donor source established in half of the cases.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;37(1):8–15
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