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Psychotherapy is an overarching term for any type of professional treatment for psychological and physical distress using verbal and nonverbal communication. Talking together, the patient and therapist engage collaboratively to understand the source of a dysfunction or suffering in order to reverse either maladaptive self-regulatory processes or to adapt and develop psychological strengths to cope with pathological conditions, developmental concerns, or trauma. Psychotherapy addresses multiple levels of functioning, including the neurobiology of the brain itself, the perception of the self to itself, the relationship of the self to others, the role of the individual in the social world, and the conceptual frameworks and beliefs that also may affect emotions and behavior.
Recent evidence suggests that exercise plays a role in cognition and that the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) can be divided into dorsal and ventral subregions based on distinct connectivity patterns.
To examine the effect of physical activity and division of the PCC on brain functional connectivity measures in subjective memory complainers (SMC) carrying the epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE 4) allele.
Participants were 22 SMC carrying the APOE ɛ4 allele (ɛ4+; mean age 72.18 years) and 58 SMC non-carriers (ɛ4–; mean age 72.79 years). Connectivity of four dorsal and ventral seeds was examined. Relationships between PCC connectivity and physical activity measures were explored.
ɛ4+ individuals showed increased connectivity between the dorsal PCC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the ventral PCC and supplementary motor area (SMA). Greater levels of physical activity correlated with the magnitude of ventral PCC–SMA connectivity.
The results provide the first evidence that ɛ4+ individuals at increased risk of cognitive decline show distinct alterations in dorsal and ventral PCC functional connectivity.
This chapter reviews the characteristics of the various interactions between the various antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including those that are in development and what is presently known regarding their mechanism. It highlights the benefits this knowledge can offer to optimize the treatment for each type of epilepsy in children. A number of AEDs have been shown to be effective as monotherapy for various types of epilepsy, in which they may therefore be administered as first-line drug. In infancy, Dravet syndrome may worsen with the addition of carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), lamotrigine (LTG), or vigabatrin (VGB). The coadministration of AED and chemotherapeutic drugs (CTD) may lead either to reduced activity or increased toxicity of an AED. Although the rule of monotherapy as the strategy of choice clearly applies to the majority of pediatric patients suffering from epilepsy, it remains difficult to maintain it for patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy.
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