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This chapter seeks to review the current definitions, laws, thinking and theorising around intimate partner violence, from a UK perspective. The breadth of the behaviours included within this type of offending and the importance and centrality of control within many definitions is highlighted. Differences between 2 key approaches to intimate partner violence or domestic abuse are explored an and the tension between traditional psychological/individually focused approaches and feminist/explanation at a societal/structural level are identified. Heterogeneity across perpetrators and the range of typologies that have been developed to address these differences are described and critiques and issues linked to male victims and female perpetrators and IPV within same sex couples if briefly reviewed. Links between substance use and IPV are considered and a range of models, including the multiple thresholds model, are reviewed. The need for integrated theories is considered. General risk factors for IPV are described and individual risk markers for some perpetrators of IPV are identified. Current commonly used risk assessment tools are described and targets for intervention are briefly explored.
The consequences of childhood maltreatment are profound and long lasting. Not only does the victim of abuse suffer as a child, but there is mounting evidence that a history of maltreatment places the next generation at risk for significant psychopathology. Research identifies postnatal factors as affecting this intergenerational transmission of trauma. However, emerging evidence suggests that part of this risk may be transmitted before birth, passed on via abuse-related alterations in the in utero environment that are as yet largely unidentified. To date, no study has directly assessed the influence of pregnant women's abuse history on fetal neurobehavioral development, nor considered trauma-associated poor sleep quality as a mediator reflecting established physiological dysregulation. Using data from 262 pregnant adolescents (ages 14–19), a population at elevated risk for childhood maltreatment, the current study examined maternal emotional abuse history and sleep quality in relation to third-trimester fetal resting heart rate variability, an index of parasympathetic nervous system functioning. The results indicate that maternal emotional abuse history is indirectly associated with lower fetal heart rate variability via abuse-related sleep disturbances. These data demonstrate an association between maternal abuse histories and fetal development, showing that at least part of the intergenerational transmission of risk occurs during pregnancy.
Depression is a particular problem in older people and it is important to know how it affects and is affected by smoking cessation.
To identify reciprocal, longitudinal relationships between smoking cessation and depression among older smokers.
Across four waves, covering six years (2002–2008), changes in smoking status and depression, measured using the 8-item Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, were assessed among recent ex-smokers and smokers (n = 2375) in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.
In latent growth curve analysis, smoking at baseline predicted depression caseness longitudinally and vice versa. When both processes were modelled concurrently, depression predicted continued smoking longitudinally (B(β) = 0.21 (0.27); 95% CI = 0.08–0.35) but not the other way round. This was the case irrespective of mental health history and adjusting for a range of covariates.
In older smokers, depression appears to act as an important barrier to quitting, although quitting has no long-term impact on depression.
Domestic violence is a pervasive social problem that has devastating emotional, physical, psychological, and financial costs for individuals, families, and communities. Despite the widespread use of current intervention programmes, recent reviews have demonstrated that these have only a small impact on the reduction of recidivism. In this article, we briefly summarise the features identified in the literature that distinguish domestically violent men from those who do not engage in such behaviours. We then explore the most common interventions used to treat domestic violence offenders and discuss the limitations of these interventions, before outlining the assumptions of the Good Lives Model (GLM), a strength-based approach to the treatment of offenders. We discuss the advantages of using the GLM compared to existing approaches and finally, we consider future directions for the use of the GLM in domestic violence interventions.
The term domestic violence has been routinely used to describe a pattern of abuse within adult intimate relationships, which is typically perpetrated by men against women, with at its core the maintenance of male power and control over women. The debate as to gender symmetry in intimate partner abuse has been greatly informed by the work of Johnson, who proposed that in fact there may be more than one type of intimate partner violence, one which is referred to as 'common couple violence'. The level of alcohol dependence appears higher within domestic violence perpetrators and the level of mental health difficulties reported also seems higher. The assaults tend to take place within the context of jealousy, separation and childcare issues. Interventions in domestic violence have been greatly informed by the 'Duluth' model of intervention, although wider cognitive behavioural perspectives are also employed.
It has long been known that yellow phosphorus is slowly oxidised in air at the ordinary temperature and that the oxidation is accompanied by a glow easily visible in a darkened room. If oxygen at atmospheric pressure is substituted for air no glow is perceived, and the oxidation, if it occurs at all, is incomparably slower than in air. If the pressure of oxygen is reduced either directly or by admixture with an indifferent gas the glow may be made to reappear. The seeming contradiction of the law of mass action involved in these phenomena has been the subject of many experiments, and the main object of the present investigation is to attempt to throw some light on this anomaly.
In the course of research on Mine Rescue Apparatus under the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research it was found necessary to investigate the conditions of utilisation of solid caustic soda for absorbing carbon dioxide, and particularly the effects of variations of temperature and water vapour upon the reaction.
In the course of some experiments, designed to prepare methylene nitrate, an interesting reaction between methylene iodide and silver nitrate in alcoholic solution was observed. When approximately an equimolecular quantity of methylene iodide is added to a saturated solution of silver nitrate in methyl or ethyl alcohol, glistening white crystals quickly begin to appear and soon form a bulky precipitate.
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