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To evaluate the impact of a multifaceted intervention on compliance with evidence-based therapies and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rates.
Collaborative cohort before-after study.
Intensive care units (ICUs) predominantly in Michigan.
We implemented a multifaceted intervention to improve compliance with 5 evidence-based recommendations for mechanically ventilated patients and to prevent VAP. A standardized CDC definition of VAP was used and maintained at each site, and data on the number of VAPs and ventilator-days were obtained from the hospital's infection preventionists. Baseline data were reported and postimplementation data were reported for 30 months. VAP rates (in cases per 1,000 ventilator-days) were calculated as the proportion of ventilator-days per quarter in which patients received all 5 therapies in the ventilator care bundle. Two interventions to improve safety culture and communication were implemented first.
One hundred twelve ICUs reporting 3,228 ICU-months and 550,800 ventilator-days were included. The overall median VAP rate decreased from 5.5 cases (mean, 6.9 cases) per 1,000 ventilator-days at baseline to 0 cases (mean, 3.4 cases) at 16–18 months after implementation (P < .001) and 0 cases (mean, 2.4 cases) at 28-30 months after implementation (P < .001). Compared to baseline, VAP rates decreased during all observation periods, with incidence rate ratios of 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.41–0.64) at 16–18 months after implementation and 0.29 (95% confidence interval, 0.24–0.34) at 28–30 months after implementation. Compliance with evidence-based therapies increased from 32% at baseline to 75% at 16–18 months after implementation (P < .001) and 84% at 28–30 months after implementation (P < .001).
A multifaceted intervention was associated with an increased use of evidence-based therapies and a substantial (up to 71%) and sustained (up to 2.5 years) decrease in VAP rates.
Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates are gaining importance as they become publicly reported metrics and potential pay-for-performance indicators. However, the current conventional method by which they are calculated may be misleading and unfairly penalize high-acuity care settings, where patients often have multiple consurrent central venous catheters (CVCs).
We compared the conventional method of calculating CLABSI rates, in which the number of catheter-days is used (1 patient with n catheters for 1 day has 1 catheter-day), with a new method that accounts for multiple concurrent catheters (1 patient with n catheters for 1 day has n catheter-days), to determine whether the difference appreciably changes the estimated CLABSI rate.
Academic, tertiary care hospital.
Adult patients who were consecutively admitted from June 10 through July 9, 2009, to a cardiac-surgical intensive care unit and a surgical intensive and surgical intermediate care unit.
Using the conventional method, we counted 485 catheter-days throughout the study period, with a daily mean of 18.6 catheter-days (95% confidence interval, 17.2-20.0 catheter-days) in the 2 intensive care units. In contrast, the new method identified 745 catheter-days, with a daily mean of 27.5 catheter-days (95% confidence interval, 25.6-30.3) in the 2 intensive care units. The difference was statistically significant (P < .001). The new method that accounted for multiple concurrent CVCs resulted in a 53.6% increase in the number of catheter-days; this increased denominator decreases the calculated CLABSI rate by 36%.
The undercounting of catheter-days for patients with multiple concurrent CVCs that occurs when the conventional method of calculating CLABSI rates is used inflates the CLABSI rate for care settings that have a high CVC burden and may not adjust for underlying medical illness. Additional research is needed to validate and generalize our findings.
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