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To develop and test–retest the reproducibility of an ethnic-specific FFQ to estimate nutrient intakes for South Asians (SA) in New Zealand (NZ).
Using culturally appropriate methods, the NZFFQ, a validated dietary assessment tool for NZ adults, was modified to include SA food items by analysing foods consumed by SA participants of the Adult Nutrition Survey, in-person audit of ethnic food stores and a web scan of ethnic food store websites in NZ. This was further refined via three focus group discussions, and the resulting New Zealand South Asian Food Frequency Questionnaire (NZSAFFQ) was tested for reproducibility.
Auckland and Dunedin, NZ.
Twenty-nine and 110 males and females aged 25–59 years of SA ethnicity participated in the focus group discussions and the test–retest, respectively.
The development phase resulted in a SA-specific FFQ comprising of 11 food groups and 180 food items. Test–retest of the NZSAFFQ showed good reproducibility between the two FFQ administrations, 6 months apart. Most reproducibility coefficients were within or higher than the acceptable range of 0·5–0·7. The lowest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were observed for β-carotene (0·47), vitamin B12 (0·50), fructose (0·55), vitamin C (0·57) and selenium (0·58), and the highest ICC were observed for alcohol (0·81), iodine (0·79) and folate (0·77). The ICC for fat ranged from 0·70 for saturated fats to 0·77 for polyunsaturated fats. The ICC for protein and energy were 0·68 and 0·72, respectively.
The developed FFQ showed good reproducibility to estimate nutrient intakes and warrants the need for validation of the instrument.
To assess the relationship between food insecurity, sleep quality, and days with mental and physical health issues among college students.
An online survey was administered. Food insecurity was assessed using the ten-item Adult Food Security Survey Module. Sleep was measured using the nineteen-item Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Mental health and physical health were measured using three items from the Healthy Days Core Module. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to assess the relationship between food insecurity, sleep quality, and days with poor mental and physical health.
Twenty-two higher education institutions.
College students (n 17 686) enrolled at one of twenty-two participating universities.
Compared with food-secure students, those classified as food insecure (43·4 %) had higher PSQI scores indicating poorer sleep quality (P < 0·0001) and reported more days with poor mental (P < 0·0001) and physical (P < 0·0001) health as well as days when mental and physical health prevented them from completing daily activities (P < 0·0001). Food-insecure students had higher adjusted odds of having poor sleep quality (adjusted OR (AOR): 1·13; 95 % CI 1·12, 1·14), days with poor physical health (AOR: 1·01; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·02), days with poor mental health (AOR: 1·03; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·03) and days when poor mental or physical health prevented them from completing daily activities (AOR: 1·03; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·04).
College students report high food insecurity which is associated with poor mental and physical health, and sleep quality. Multi-level policy changes and campus wellness programmes are needed to prevent food insecurity and improve student health-related outcomes.
Background: Central-line–associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs) are linked with significant morbidity and mortality. A NHSN laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (LCBSI) has specific criteria to ascribe an infection to the central line or not. The criteria used to associate the pathogen to another site are restrictive. This objective to better classify CLABSIs using enhanced criteria to gain a comprehensive understanding of the error so that appropriate reduction efforts are utilized. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of medical records with NHSN-identified CLABSI from July 2017 to December 2018 at 2 geographically proximate hospitals. Trained infectious diseases personnel from tertiary-care academic medical centers, the University of Virginia Health System, a 600-bed medical center in Charlottesville, Virginia, and Virginia Commonwealth University Health System with 865 beds in Richmond, Virginia, reviewed charts. We defined “overcaptured” or O-CLABSI into different categories: O-CLABSI-1 is bacteremia attributable to a primary infectious source; O-CLABSI-2 is bacteremia attributable to neutropenia with gastrointestinal translocation not meeting mucosal barrier injury criteria; O-CLABSI-3 is a positive blood culture attributable to a contaminant; and O-CLABSI-4 is a patient injecting line, though not officially documented. Descriptive analyses were performed using the χ2 and the Fisher exact tests. Results: We found a large number of O-CLABSIs on chart review (79 of 192, 41%). Overall, 56 of 192 (29%) LCBSIs were attributable to a primary infectious source not meeting NHSN definition. O-CLABSI proportions between the 2 hospitals were statistically different; hospital A identified 34 of 59 (58%) of their NHSN-identified CLABSIs as O-CLABSIs, and hospital B identified a 45 of 133 (34%) as O-CLABSIs (P = .0020) (Table 1). When comparing O-CLABSI types, hospital B had a higher percentage of O-CLABSI-1 compared to hospital B: 76% versus 64%. Hospital A had a higher proportion of O-CLABSI-2: 21 versus 7%. Hospitals A and B had similar proportion of O-CLABSI-3: 15% versus 18%. These values were all statistically significant (P < .0001). Discussions: The results of these 2 geographically proximate systems indicate that O-CLABSIs are common. Attribution can vary significantly between institutions, likely depending on differences in incidence of true CLABSI, patient populations, protocols, and protocol compliance. These findings have implications for interfacility comparisons of publicly reported data. Most importantly, erroneous attribution can result in missed opportunity to direct patient safety efforts to the root cause of the bacteremia and could lead to inappropriate treatment.
Disclosures: Michelle Doll, Research Grant from Molnlycke Healthcare
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between childhood obesity and modifiable population-level risk factors, after accounting for deprivation.
A review of the literature identified population-level risk factors including a healthy childcare setting, the local food environment, accessible open space, community safety and crime. Data for these risk factors were then identified and matched by each of the twenty-two local government areas in Wales to each child that had data on height and weight in the Wales Childhood Measurement Programme (CMP) (2012–2017). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations with childhood obesity.
The current study was undertaken in Wales, UK, where approximately one in eight 4–5-year-olds are classified as obese.
All participants were children aged 4 or 5 years who attend school, measured as part of the CMP, between 2012 and 2017 (n 129 893, mean age 5·0 (sd 0·4) years).
After adjusting for deprivation, small but statistically significant associations were found between childhood obesity and percentage of land available as accessible open space OR 0·981 (95 % CI: 0·973, 0·989) P < 0·001) and density of fast food outlets OR 1·002 (95 % CI 1·001, 1·004, P = 0·001). No other population-level risk factors were associated with childhood obesity.
The current study indicates that, even after accounting for deprivation, risk factors such as the density of fast food outlets and access to green space should be considered when tackling childhood obesity as a public health issue.
The term “Antarctic ambassadorship” is increasingly used to represent an individual’s connection to Antarctica and their subsequent advocacy. However, there is little clarity regarding the concept. To address this, we combined a literature review with an expert elicitation workshop. We argue that (i) the concept of Antarctic ambassador has been understood in myriad ways; (ii) Antarctic ambassadors have a connection to, knowledge of and passion for Antarctica; (iii) they also have a commitment to defending and advancing Antarctic values and (iv) Antarctic ambassadorship is about more than advocacy. We propose the first comprehensive definition of Antarctic ambassadorship. We hope this will provide a cornerstone upon which future research, and a more informed governance of Antarctic tourism, can be built.
To test the relationship between schizotypal symptoms and cannabis use in a non-clinical population, cannabis users and non-users were asked to complete the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. Significant differences in scores between the groups were observed. There may be a developmental process in the relationship between cannabis use and schizotypal symptoms.
As professors, we seek not only to impart knowledge about issues and concepts in American politics but also to engage and inspire students to become more knowledgeable and more active in politics. This article explains how a student-run exit poll conducted on Election Day 2016 accomplished both goals. Seven faculty members from four universities pooled our students and carried out an exit poll in the District of Columbia, Maryland, Virginia, and Ohio. By the time the polls closed, our students had spoken to more than 2,300 respondents, providing a memorable experience and creating a shared dataset that served as the centerpiece for many final class projects. Through this project, students gained hands-on experience in survey design, sampling, research ethics, polling, and data analysis.
Developments in information and communication technologies have enabled electronic health and seen a huge expansion over the last decade. This has increased the possibility of self-management of health issues.
To assess the effectiveness of the Baby Buddy app on maternal self-efficacy and mental well-being three months post-birth in a sample of mothers recruited antenatally. In addition, to explore when, why and how mothers use the app and consider any benefits the app may offer them in relation to their parenting, health, relationships or communication with their child, friends, family members or health professionals.
We will use a mixed-methods approach, a cohort study, a qualitative element and analysis of in-app data. Participants will be first-time pregnant women, aged 16 years and over, between 12 and 16 weeks of gestation and recruited from five English study sites.
We will compare maternal self-efficacy and mental health at three months post-delivery in mothers who have downloaded the Baby Buddy app compared with those that have not downloaded the app, controlling for confounding factors. Women will be recruited antenatally between 12 and 16 weeks of gestation. Further follow-ups will take place at 35 weeks of gestation and three months post-birth. Data from the cohort study will be supplemented by in-app data that will include, for example, patterns of usage. Qualitative data will assess the impact of the app on the lives of pregnant women and health professionals using both focus groups and interviews.
Approval from the West Midlands-South Birmingham Research Ethics Committee (NRES) (16/WM/0029) and the University of the West of England, Bristol, Research Ethics Committee (HAS.16.08.001).
Findings of the study will be published in peer reviewed and professional journals, presented locally, nationally and at international conferences. Participants will receive a summary of the findings and the results will be published on Best Beginnings’ website.
Reforestation in the Inland Northwest, including northeastern Oregon, USA, is often limited by a dry climate and soil moisture availability during the summer months. Reduction of competing vegetative cover in forest plantations is a common method for retaining available soil moisture. Several spring and summer site preparation (applied prior to planting) herbicide treatments were evaluated to determine their efficacy in reducing competing cover, thus retaining soil moisture, on three sites in northeastern Oregon. Results varied by site, year, and season of application. In general, sulfometuron (0.14 kg ai ha–1 alone and in various mixtures), imazapyr (0.42 ae kg ha–1), and hexazinone (1.68 kg ai ha–1) resulted in 3 to 17% cover of forbs and grasses in the first-year when applied in spring. Sulfometuron+glyphosate (2.2 kg ha–1) consistently reduced grasses and forbs for the first year when applied in summer, but forbs recovered in the second year on two of three sites. Aminopyralid (0.12 kg ae ha–1)+sulfometuron applied in summer also led to comparable control of forb cover. In the second year after treatment, forb cover in treated plots was similar to levels in nontreated plots, and some species of forbs had increased relative to nontreated plots. Imazapyr (0.21 and 0.42 kg ha–1) at either rate, spring or summer 2007, or at lower rate (0.14 kg ha–1) with glyphosate in summer, provided the best control of shrubs, of which snowberry was the dominant species. Total vegetative cover was similar across all treatments seven and eight years after application, and differences in vegetation were related to site rather than treatment. In the first year after treatment, rates of soil moisture depletion in the 0- to 23-cm depth were correlated with vegetative cover, particularly late season soil moisture, suggesting increased water availability for tree seedling growth.
Serum and erythrocyte (RBC) total folate are indicators of folate status. No nationally representative population data exist for folate forms. We measured the serum folate forms (5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF), unmetabolised folic acid (UMFA), non-methyl folate (sum of tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-formylTHF), 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (5,10-methenylTHF)) and MeFox (5-methylTHF oxidation product)) by HPLC–MS/MS and RBC total folate by microbiologic assay in US population ≥ 1 year (n approximately 7500) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2. Data analysis for serum total folate was conducted including and excluding MeFox. Concentrations (geometric mean; detection rate) of 5-methylTHF (37·5 nmol/l; 100 %), UMFA (1·21 nmol/l; 99·9 %), MeFox (1·53 nmol/l; 98·8 %), and THF (1·01 nmol/l; 85·2 %) were mostly detectable. 5-FormylTHF (3·6 %) and 5,10-methenylTHF (4·4 %) were rarely detected. The biggest contributor to serum total folate was 5-methylTHF (86·7 %); UMFA (4·0 %), non-methyl folate (4·7 %) and MeFox (4·5 %) contributed smaller amounts. Age was positively related to MeFox, but showed a U-shaped pattern for other folates. We generally noted sex and race/ethnic biomarker differences and weak (Spearman's r< 0·4) but significant (P< 0·05) correlations with physiological and lifestyle variables. Fasting, kidney function, smoking and alcohol intake showed negative associations. BMI and body surface area showed positive associations with MeFox but negative associations with other folates. All biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations with recent folic acid-containing dietary supplement use. These first-time population data for serum folate forms generally show similar associations with demographic, physiological and lifestyle variables as serum total folate. Patterns observed for MeFox may suggest altered folate metabolism dependent on biological characteristics.
A previous study showed that imposing economic restrictions improves the forecasting ability of food demand systems, thus warranting their use even when they are rejected in-sample. This article evaluates whether this result is due to economic restrictions enhancing degrees of freedom or containing nonsample information. Results indicate that restrictions improve forecasting ability even when they are not derived from economic theory, but theoretical restrictions forecast best.
Para comprobar la relaci ón entre los síntomas esquizotípicos y el uso de cannabis en una población no clínica, se pidió a usuarios y no usuarios de cannabis que completaran el Cuestionario de la Personalidad Esquizotípica. Se observaron diferencias significativas en las puntuaciones entre los grupos. Puede haber un proceso evolutivo en la relación entre el uso de cannabis y los síntomas esquizotípicos.
In this study a combination of scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine leaf cells of the common weed Indian strawberry (Duchesnea indica) infected by the biotrophic rust fungus Frommeëla mexicana var. indicae. For SEM, free-hand sections of infected leaves cut with a razor blade were placed in a 5% (wt/vol) aqueous solutions of Ariel (Proctor and Gamble, Cincinnati, OH), a washing powder containing a bacterial protease. This treatment removed exposed host cell cytoplasm so as to reveal details of fungal haustoria and host cell wall responses to infection (Figs. 1, 2). Samples then were processed for study according to procedures described previously. For TEM, samples were prepared for study using high pressure freezing followed by freeze substitution. This fixation procedure has been used with excellent results to study hostpathogen interactions in rust-infected plants.
Frommeëla mexicana var. indicae produced specialized hyphal branches known as haustoria that extended through the walls of infected cells. Each haustorium possessed a long, slender neck region (Fig. 3) and an expanded body (Figs. 1, 4) that was separated from the host cell cytoplasm by the invaginated host cell plasma membrane. At maturity the neck region was surrounded by a extensive labyrinth cell wall in-growth or elaboration (Figs. 1-3) that appeared to be identical to wall elaborations that characterize plant transfer cells. Such cells are thought to be involved in intensive solute transfer over short distances. While transfer cells have been reported within cells of the haustoria of various plant parasitic higher plants and in plant giant cells induced by certain plant parasitic nematodes, this appears to be the first report of their formation in response to infection by a plant pathogenic fungus. Not only did these elaborations form in the immediate vicinity of haustoria, they also arose apart from haustoria in infected cells. However, such elaborations were not found in cells of uninfected leaves.
Entomosporium mespili has emerged as a significant pathogen of red tip (Photinia × fraseri), a popular and widely grown ornamental in the southeastern United States. This fungal pathogen produces its distinctive multi-celled, insect-like asexual spores or conidia (Fig. 1) in structures known as acervuli (Fig. 2) that rupture the surfaces of infected leaves. This study examines the fine structure of these conidia using a combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In the case of transmission electron microscopy, conidia were prepared for study using either plunge freezing or high pressure freezing followed by freeze substitution.
Each mature conidium of E. mespili consists of four to six cells (Fig. 1). These include one apical cell and one basal cell and two to four small lateral cells attached to the basal cell. The apical and lateral cells each possess a long, slender appendage. Excluding these appendages, the length of a mature conidium is usually 20-24μm while the diameters of the apical and basal cells are 8-11μm and 6-9μm respectively.
Electron microscopy (EM) has become an increasingly powerful method for the determination of three-dimensional (3D) structures of proteins and macromolecular complexes. EM offers advantages over X-ray crystallography and NMR for obtaining structural information about proteins in physiological conditions, as components of large assemblies, that cannot be obtained in large quantity, or that fail to yield 3D crystals. EM has been used to obtain structural data from images of isolated molecules and molecular complexes, two-dimensional (2D) protein crystals, and helical protein arrays. Helically arranged proteins allow the most rapid determination of 3D maps because they contain a complete range of equally spaced molecular views, therefore no tilting of the sample with respect to the electron beam is required. However, so far 3D structure determination of helical assemblies has been limited to proteins that naturally adopt this organization and to proteins that fortuitously crystallize as helices.
Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is a process by which a fluorophore (the donor) in the excited state transfers its energy to a neighboring fluorophore (the acceptor) non-radiatively through dipole-dipole interactions. Since the efficiency of energy transfer varies as the inverse of the sixth power of the distance separating the donor and acceptor chromophores, for FRET to occur the distance between the two molecules cannot exceed 10 to 100 angstroms (1 to l0nm). The combination of FRET and optical microscopy allows examination and quantitation of dynamic molecular interactions between cellular constituents at resolutions beyond the Abbe diffraction limit of light microscopy. Through the microscope one may detect FRET by an overall decrease in fluorescence emission of the donor with a concomitant increase in fluorescence emission of the acceptor.