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In view of the increasing complexity of both cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and patients in the current era, practice guidelines, by necessity, have become increasingly specific. This document is an expert consensus statement that has been developed to update and further delineate indications and management of CIEDs in pediatric patients, defined as ≤21 years of age, and is intended to focus primarily on the indications for CIEDs in the setting of specific disease categories. The document also highlights variations between previously published adult and pediatric CIED recommendations and provides rationale for underlying important differences. The document addresses some of the deterrents to CIED access in low- and middle-income countries and strategies to circumvent them. The document sections were divided up and drafted by the writing committee members according to their expertise. The recommendations represent the consensus opinion of the entire writing committee, graded by class of recommendation and level of evidence. Several questions addressed in this document either do not lend themselves to clinical trials or are rare disease entities, and in these instances recommendations are based on consensus expert opinion. Furthermore, specific recommendations, even when supported by substantial data, do not replace the need for clinical judgment and patient-specific decision-making. The recommendations were opened for public comment to Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) members and underwent external review by the scientific and clinical document committee of the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the science advisory and coordinating committee of the American Heart Association (AHA), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). The document received endorsement by all the collaborators and the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), the Indian Heart Rhythm Society (IHRS), and the Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS). This document is expected to provide support for clinicians and patients to allow for appropriate CIED use, appropriate CIED management, and appropriate CIED follow-up in pediatric patients.
Novel endometrial cancer (EC) early-detection approaches may reduce racial disparities in mortality. We conducted six community-based focus groups with White and Black women (N = 57 participants) in February-March 2020 to explore acceptability of a home-based tampon sampling approach for EC. Participants also completed a survey. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Awareness of EC and risk factors was low. Acceptability regarding home sampling was high, but participants expressed concerns about instruction complexity and potential risks. Black women reported lower comfort with tampons. Increasing EC awareness, self-efficacy, and familiarization with tampons would advance prospects for at-home sample collection for EC testing.
The menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) risk–benefit profile has been at the centre of the debate that polarizes opinion between those who advocate the use of MHT and those who oppose it even before the publication of the original Women‘s Health Initiative (WHI) study in 2001. Whilst there is broad agreement around some of the key benefits of MHT there remains considerable difference about the interpretation of the risks in taking it. Revised data from the WHI and other randomized clinical trials since the publication of WHI together with various recent authoritative international position statements and recommendations since the last edition have helped to clarify some of the uncertainties and provide more robust evidence for clinical decision-making.
The Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) is a non-profit organisation comprised of individuals dedicated to improving the care of children and young adults with cardiac rhythm disturbances. Although PACES is a predominantly North American-centric organisation, international members have been a part of PACES for the last two decades. This year, PACES expanded its North American framework into a broadly expansive international role. On 12 May, 2015, paediatric electrophysiology leaders from within the United States of America and Canada met with over 30 international paediatric electrophysiologists from 17 countries and five continents discussing measures to (1) expand PACES’ global vision, (2) address ongoing challenges such as limited resource allocation that may be present in developing countries, (3) expand PACES’ governance to include international representation, (4) promote joint international sessions at future paediatric EP meetings, and (5) facilitate a global multi-centre research consortium. This meeting marked the inception of a formal international collaborative spirit in PACES. This editorial addresses some solutions to breakdown the continental silos paediatric electrophysiologists have practiced within; however, there remain ongoing limitations, and future discussions will be needed to continue to move the PACES global international vision forward.
Despite improvements in outcomes after completion of the Fontan circulation, long-term functional state varies. We sought to identify pre- and postoperative characteristics associated with overall function.
Methods and Results
We analyzed data from 476 survivors with the Fontan circulation enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Fontan Cross-sectional Study. Mean age at creation of the Fontan circulation was 3.4 plus or minus 2.1 years, with a range from 0.7 to 17.5 years, and time since completion was 8.7 plus or minus 3.4 years, the range being from 1.1 to 17.3 years. We calculated a functional score for the survivors by averaging the percentile ranks of ventricular ejection fraction, maximal consumption of oxygen, the physical summary score for the Child Health Questionnaire, and a function of brain natriuretic peptide. The mean calculated score was 49.5 plus or minus 17.3, with a range from 3 to 87. After adjustment for time since completion of the circulation, we found that a lower score, and hence worse functional state, was associated with: right ventricular morphology (p less than 0.001), higher ventricular end-diastolic pressure (p equals 0.003) and lower saturations of oxygen (p equals 0.047) prior to completion of the Fontan circulation, lower income for the caregiver (p equals 0.003), and, in subjects without a prior superior cavopulmonary anastomosis, arrhythmias after completion of the circulation (p equals 0.003). The model explained almost one-fifth (18%) of the variation in the calculated scores. The score was not associated with surgical centre, sex, age, weight, fenestration, or the period of stay in hospital after completion of the Fontan circuit. A validation model, using 71 subjects randomly excluded from initial analysis, weakly correlated (R equals 0.17, p equals 0.16) with the score calculated from the dataset.
Right ventricular morphology, higher ventricular end-diastolic pressure and lower saturations of oxygen prior to completion of the Fontan circuit, lower income for the provider of care, and arrhythmias after creation of the circuit, are all associated with a worse functional state. Unmeasured factors also influence outcomes.
Abstract. This paper examines the usefulness of Canadian political party labels as information shortcuts. We supplement survey data analysis with the results of an experiment that tested whether knowing a party's position on an issue influenced opinion expression. We find that, contrary to findings in other countries, among our subject pool, Canadian political parties are not consistently useful as information cues. The Liberal party cue is hardly useful, and while the Conservative party cue can be effective, it appears to push partisans toward a more liberal stance on selected opinions. Only the NDP cue appears to influence opinions in the expected direction. These mixed findings run counter to foundational works on party labels as information shortcuts (mostly focused on US politics) and, instead, are consistent with previous scholarship on Canadian politics.
Résumé. Cet article examine l'utilité des étiquettes politiques des partis canadiens comme sources d'information sommaire. Nous analysons des données d'enquête ainsi que les résultats d'un sondage visant à déterminer si le fait de connaître la position d'un parti sur une question donnée influençait l'expression des opinions. Contrairement aux résultats obtenus dans d'autres pays, nous constatons chez les sujets observés que les étiquettes des partis politiques canadiens ne sont pas uniformément utiles comme sources d'information sommaire. L'étiquette du Parti libéral s'avère à peine utile, tandis que l'étiquette du Parti conservateur, peut-être plus efficace, semble inciter les partisans à une position plus libérale. Seule l'étiquette du NPD semble influencer les avis dans la direction prévue. Ces conclusions mixtes contredisent des travaux fondamentaux sur le même sujet (portant pour la plupart sur la politique aux États-Unis) et confirment plutôt les études antérieures sur la politique canadienne.
As patients with congenital cardiac malformations increasingly survive therapeutic interventions, and our understanding of primary electrical diseases increases, the landscape of paediatric and congenital electrophysiology is expanding. Electrophysiologic abnormalities, both tachycardic and bradycardic, are commonly seen in post-operative patients with congenital cardiac disease, as well as being part of the natural history of congenital malformations and cardiomyopathies. Disturbances of rhythm represent an increasing morbidity in this population, and therapies using devices in the form of pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators have taken on a correspondingly important role. In this review, we discuss some of the key features and recent advances in pacing for bradycardia, resynchronization pacing, anti-tachycardia pacing, and use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.