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Many Aboriginal Australian communities are undergoing language shift from traditional Indigenous languages to contact varieties such as Kriol, an English-lexified Creole. Kriol is reportedly characterised by lexical items with highly variable phonological specifications, and variable implementation of voicing and manner contrasts in obstruents (Sandefur, 1986). A language, such as Kriol, characterised by this unusual degree of variability presents Kriol-acquiring children with a potentially difficult language-learning task, and one which challenges the prevalent theories of acquisition. To examine stop consonant acquisition in this unusual language environment, we present a study of Kriol stop and affricate production, followed by a mispronunciation detection study, with Kriol-speaking children (ages 4-7) from a Northern Territory community where Kriol is the lingua franca. In contrast to previous claims, the results suggest that Kriol-speaking children acquire a stable phonology and lexemes with canonical phonemic specifications, and that English experience would not appear to induce this stability.
Test scores from a comprehensive neuropsychological battery
administered to 1602 subjects consisting of 1347 subjects with
probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), 100 subjects with
questionable dementia (QD) and 155 non-demented elderly control
subjects were cross-sectionally analyzed. Subjects with probable
AD were categorized as mild (n = 244),
moderate (n = 480), severe (n
= 376), and very severe (n = 247) according
to modified mini mental status exam (mMMSE) scores. Mean scores
on individual neuropsychological tests are provided for each
group of subjects. Stratified random sampling was performed
to select a sample of mild AD subjects who were matched in age
and education to non-demented elderly controls, and analyses
focused on the performance of QD subjects and mild AD subjects,
whose scores were compared to those of the elderly control
subjects. Selected scores were organized by cognitive domain
and logistic regressions were used to determine the domains
and individual tests within each that were most predictive of
group status. Results suggested a profile of scores associated
with QD and mild AD including impaired recall of verbal information
for both groups. Areas of lower functioning in QD subjects as
compared to elderly controls included category fluency and
visuospatial ability. (JINS, 2003, 9, 720–732.)
To examine a comprehensive approach for preventing percutaneous injuries associated with phlebotomy procedures.
Design and Setting:
From 1993 through 1995, personnel at 10 university-affiliated hospitals enhanced surveillance and assessed underreporting of percutaneous injuries; selected, implemented, and evaluated the efficacy of phlebotomy devices with safety features (ie, engineered sharps injury prevention devices [ESIPDs]); and assessed healthcare worker satisfaction with ESIPDs. Investigators also evaluated the preventability of a subset of percutaneous injuries and conducted an audit of sharps disposal containers to quantify activation rates for devices with safety features.
The three selected phlebotomy devices with safety features reduced percutaneous injury rates compared with conventional devices. Activation rates varied according to ease of use, healthcare worker preference for ESIPDs, perceived “patient adverse events,” and device-specific training.
Device-specific features and healthcare worker training and involvement in the selection of ESIPDs affect the activation rates for ESIPDs and therefore their efficacy. The implementation of ESIPDs is a useful measure in a comprehensive program to reduce percutaneous injuries associated with phlebotomy procedures.
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