To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Paediatricians play an integral role in the lifelong care of children with CHD, many of whom will undergo cardiac surgery. There is a paucity of literature for the paediatrician regarding the post-operative care of such patients.
The aim of this manuscript is to summarise essential principles and pertinent lesion-specific context for the care of patients who have undergone surgery or intervention resulting in a biventricular circulation.
Conclusions and relevance:
Familiarity with common issues following cardiac surgery or intervention, as well as key details regarding specific lesions and surgeries, will aid the paediatrician in providing optimal care for these patients.
Single ventricle CHD affects about 5 out of 100,000 newborns, resulting in complex anatomy often requiring multiple, staged palliative surgeries. Paediatricians are an essential part of the team that cares for children with single ventricle CHD. These patients often encounter their paediatrician first when a complication arises, so it is critical to ensure the paediatrician is knowledgeable of these issues to provide optimal care.
We reviewed the subtypes of single ventricle heart disease and the various palliative surgeries these patients undergo. We then searched the literature to detail the general paediatrician’s approach to single ventricle patients at different stages of surgical palliation.
Conclusions and relevance
Single ventricle patients undergo staged palliation that drastically changes physiology after each intervention. Coordinated care between their paediatrician and cardiologist is requisite to provide excellent care. This review highlights what to expect when these patients are seen by their paediatrician for either well child visits or additional visits for parental or patient concern.
Intraoperative imaging determines the integrity of surgical repairs. Transoesophageal echocardiography represents standard care for intraoperative imaging in CHD. However, some conditions preclude its use, and epicardial echocardiography is used alternatively. Minimal literature exists on the impact of epicardial echocardiography versus transoesophageal echocardiography. We aimed to evaluate accuracy between the two modalities and hypothesised higher imaging error rates for epicardial echocardiography.
We retrospectively reviewed all epicardial echocardiograms performed over 16 years and compared them to an age- and procedure-matched, randomly selected transoesophageal echocardiography cohort. We detected un- or misidentified cardiac lesions during the intraoperative imaging and evaluated patient outcomes. Data are presented as a median with a range, or a number with percentages, with comparisons by Wilcoxon two-sample test and Fisher’s exact test.
Totally, 413 patients comprised the epicardial echocardiography group with 295 transoesophageal echocardiography matches. Rates of imaging discrepancies, re-operation, and incision infection were similar. About 13% of epicardial echocardiography patients had imaging discrepancies versus 16% for transoesophageal (p = 0.2352), the former also had smaller body sizes (p < 0.0001) and more genetic abnormalities (33% versus 19%, p < 0.0001). Death/mechanical support occurred more frequently in epicardial echocardiography patients (16% versus 6%, p < 0.0001), while hospitalisations were longer (25 versus 19 days, p = 0.0003).
Diagnostic accuracy was similar between patients undergoing epicardial echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography, while rates of death and mechanical support were increased in this inherently higher risk patient population. Epicardial echocardiography provides a reasonable alternative when transoesophageal echocardiography is not feasible.
Substantial progress has been made in the standardization of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care. In 1936, Maude Abbott published her Atlas of Congenital Cardiac Disease, which was the first formal attempt to classify congenital heart disease. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) is now utilized worldwide and has most recently become the paediatric and congenital cardiac component of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The most recent publication of the IPCCC was in 2017. This manuscript provides an updated 2021 version of the IPCCC.
The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (ISNPCHD), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), developed the paediatric and congenital cardiac nomenclature that is now within the eleventh version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This unification of IPCCC and ICD-11 is the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature and is the first time that the clinical nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care and the administrative nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care are harmonized. The resultant congenital cardiac component of ICD-11 was increased from 29 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-9 and 73 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-10 to 318 codes submitted by ISNPCHD through 2018 for incorporation into ICD-11. After these 318 terms were incorporated into ICD-11 in 2018, the WHO ICD-11 team added an additional 49 terms, some of which are acceptable legacy terms from ICD-10, while others provide greater granularity than the ISNPCHD thought was originally acceptable. Thus, the total number of paediatric and congenital cardiac terms in ICD-11 is 367. In this manuscript, we describe and review the terminology, hierarchy, and definitions of the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature. This article, therefore, presents a global system of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care that unifies clinical and administrative nomenclature.
The members of ISNPCHD realize that the nomenclature published in this manuscript will continue to evolve. The version of the IPCCC that was published in 2017 has evolved and changed, and it is now replaced by this 2021 version. In the future, ISNPCHD will again publish updated versions of IPCCC, as IPCCC continues to evolve.
Heterotaxy syndrome is caused by left–right asymmetry disturbances and is associated with abnormal lateralisation of the abdominal and thoracic organs. The heart is frequently involved and the severity of the abnormality usually determines the outcome.
We performed a direct sequence analysis of the coding sequence of genes including Zinc Finger Protein of the Cerebellum 3, Left–Right Determination Factor 2, Activin A Receptor Type IIB, and Cryptic in 47 patients with laterality defects and congenital cardiac disease.
Of the 47 patients, 31 (66%) had atrioventricular septal defects, 34 (72%) had abnormal systemic venous return, 25 (53%) had transposed or malposed great arteries, and 20 (43%) had pulmonary venous abnormalities. We identified two novel genetic changes in Zinc Finger Protein of the Cerebellum 3, and these variants were not present in 100 ethnically matched control samples. One previously reported missense mutation in Activin A Receptor Type IIB was identified in two unrelated subjects. The genetic changes identified in this study are all located in conserved regions and are predicted to affect protein function in left–right axis formation and cardiovascular development.
Mutations in Zinc Finger Protein of the Cerebellum 3 and Activin A Receptor Type IIB were identified in 4 of the 47 patients with heterotaxy syndrome for a yield of approximately 8.5%. Our results expand the mutation spectrum of monogenic heterotaxy syndrome with associated cardiac anomalies and suggest that there are other causes of heterotaxy yet to be identified.
Objectives: This study was designed to assess the frequency and types of genetic variants in CFC1 in children with laterality disorders associated with cardiovascular involvement. Background: Laterality syndromes are estimated to comprise 3% of neonates with congenital cardiac disease. Genetic predisposition in some cases of laterality defects has been suggested by associated chromosomal anomalies and familial aggregation, often within consanguineous families, suggesting autosomal recessive inheritance. Mice with induced homozygous mutations in cfc1, and heterozygous CFC1 mutations in humans, have been associated with laterality defects. Methods: Direct sequence analysis of the coding sequence of CFC1 was performed in 42 subjects with laterality defects and congenital cardiac disease. Results: We identified 3 synonymous coding variants, 3 non-synonymous coding variants (N21H, R47Q, and R78W), and 2 intronic variants in CFC1. The N21H variant was observed in 3 of 19 affected Caucasians, and the R47Q variant in another 2. Neither polymorphism was observed in Caucasian controls. Furthermore, all subjects with the N21H polymorphism had double outlet right ventricle. Transmission of both the N21H and R47Q polymorphisms from unaffected parents was demonstrated, and all three non-synonymous variants had significant allele frequencies in unaffected African-American subjects, suggesting that other factors must also contribute to laterality defects. Conclusions: Three non-synonymous variants in CFC1 were identified, the N21H variant being associated with laterality defects in Caucasians, but not fully penetrant. One or more of these non-synonymous missense variants may act as a susceptibility allele in conjunction with other genes, and/or environmental factors, to cause laterality defects.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.