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Metchnikovellids are a deep-branching group of microsporidia, parasites of gregarines inhabiting the alimentary tract of polychaetes and some other invertebrates. The diversity and phylogeny of these hyperparasites remain poorly studied. Modern descriptions and molecular data are still lacking for many species. The results of a light microscopy study and molecular data for Metchnikovella spiralis Sokolova et al., 2014, a hyperparasite of the eugregarine Polyrhabdina sp., isolated from the polychaete Pygospio elegans, were obtained. The original description of M. spiralis was based primarily on the analysis of stained preparations and transmission electron microscopy images. Here, the species description was complemented with the results of in vivo observations and phylogenetic analysis based on the SSU rRNA gene. It was shown that in this species, free sporogony precedes sac-bound sporogony, as it occurs in the life cycle of most other metchnikovellids. Spore sacs are entwined with spirally wound cords, and possess only one polar plug. Phylogenetic analyses did not group M. spiralis with M. incurvata, another metchnikovellid from the same gregarine species, but placed it as a sister branch to Amphiacantha. The paraphyletic nature of the genus Metchnikovella was discussed. The taxonomic summary for M. spiralis was emended.
Background: Depression is a common and treatable illness in late-life. However, many do not seek treatment and may suffer from the stigma of the illness, which may vary across cultures. The aim of this study was to compare attitudes about depression in primary care practices in South Korea, Russia, and the USA.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken using a self-administered questionnaire and PHQ-9 diagnostic survey with 1,094 patients aged 60–93 years who attended a primary care clinic in Korea, Russia, or the USA.
Results: The mean age of participants was 71 years, with 61% being female. US patients were older and had higher education levels. Russian participants were more likely to be widowed and had lower self-rated health. The majority of participants agreed that depression is a kind of disease (Korea 77%, Russia 61%, USA 79%). Only 6% of US patients believed depression means a person is weak, compared to 78% (Korea) and 61% (Russia). Fewer US patients endorsed depression as a normal part of aging (29% vs. Korea at 42% and Russia at 54%). Among participants in the USA, age correlated negatively with endorsement of a medical model of depression (p = <0.001).
Conclusions: Though there was wide variation between countries in attitudes about depression, the majority of each endorsed items reflected a medical model of depression. Korean and Russian participants endorsed the view of depression as a personal weakness more than participants in the USA. Demographic correlates of negative attitudes about depression were moderate to weak.
This work presents results of studies of the structural features of nanocrystalline doped Ce1−xMexO2−y samples (Me = Sm, Bi, Gd; X = 0–0.5) prepared via the polymerised precursor (Pechini) route by using a combination of diffraction (XRD, TEM, WAXS on SR) and spectroscopic (EXAFS, Raman, FTIRS of lattice modes, XPS, SIMS) methods.
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