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Stroke is the third leading cause of death and one of the most common causes of disability and depression. Depression, which is the most common disorder after stroke, is associated with limited functionality, reduced self-care, and increased mortality.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of depressive symptomatology and the degree of functionality in patients after stroke. Additionally, the relationship between the above parameters, as well as their correlation with socio-demographic characteristics and clinical factors of these patients were explored.
A total of 110 patients after stroke (69 men and 41 women) with a mean age of 69.3 ± 13.7 years were recruited and completed (a) a sociodemographic-clinical questionnaire, (b) the Center for Epidemiological Studies-depression (CES-D) scale, and (c) Barthel Index.
A literature review in the Pubmed database has been made, after the year 2005, using the key- words: neuropsychological assessment; MCI; AD; DLB; progression to dementia. Seventeen relevant articles have been found.
76.4% of the participants had ischemic stroke; while the 76.4% were married and the 60% were retired. The 74.5% of our study participants were at risk for depression. 33.6% of our sample were receiving antidepressant treatment. Patients living alone had a higher depressive symptomatology score. Depression was significantly correlated negatively with patients’ degree of functionality and independence. Of the participants in our sample, a percentage of 14.5% had received a disability pension, while 6.4% stated that they had no employment for health reasons, which is indicative of the disruption of their functioning.
The onset of depressive symptoms is common among survivors after stroke. Lonely living, as well as loss of functionality may lead to the appearance of depressive symptoms. Early detection and management of depression may facilitate patient’s compliance to the rehabilitation program in order to achieve optimal therapeutic results and ensure a better quality of life.
Individuals may consider stroke complications as a threat to their well-being and self- esteem. Anger often occurs in patients after stroke and can disrupt the course of patient’s recovery.
The aim of the present study was to investigate anger expression and degree of functionality in patients after stroke. Additionally, the relationship between the above parameters, as well as their correlation with socio-demographic characteristics and clinical factors of these patients were explored.
A total of 110 patients after stroke (69 men and 41 women) with a mean age of 69.3 ± 13.7 years were recruited and completed (a) a sociodemographic-clinical questionnaire, (b) the State - Trait Anger Expression Inventory and (c) Barthel Index.
76.4% of the participants had ischemic stroke; while the 60% were retired. and the 20% of the sample showed severe to total dependence on self-care of basic parameters such as mobility, personal hygiene, feeding, incontinence and standing alone using the toilet. There was a positive statistically significant correlation between the degree of functionality and anger control. Patient, who were more independent and functional, exhibited more control of their anger. Women had statistically significant lower functionality/ independence score (BI) and anger-in score than men. Finally, patients with a history of prior stroke had higher anger-out score compared to patients with no previous history.
People with a previous history were more likely to suffer from greater and/or permanent functional impairment, disability, dependence, and experience emotional distress for longer periods of time. Women usually take care of other family members. Their inability to fulfill their role as well as their own dependence make the situation even more stressful, resulting in expressing anger. The results can be exploited by health professionals in order to recognize patients’ difficulties in rehabilitation programs.
There is increasing evidence for shared genetic susceptibility between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Although genetic variants only convey subtle increases in risk individually, their combination into a polygenic risk score constitutes a strong disease predictor.
To investigate whether schizophrenia and bipolar disorder polygenic risk scores can distinguish people with broadly defined psychosis and their unaffected relatives from controls.
Using the latest Psychiatric Genomics Consortium data, we calculated schizophrenia and bipolar disorder polygenic risk scores for 1168 people with psychosis, 552 unaffected relatives and 1472 controls.
Patients with broadly defined psychosis had dramatic increases in schizophrenia and bipolar polygenic risk scores, as did their relatives, albeit to a lesser degree. However, the accuracy of predictive models was modest.
Although polygenic risk scores are not ready for clinical use, it is hoped that as they are refined they could help towards risk reduction advice and early interventions for psychosis.
Declaration of interest
R.M.M. has received honoraria for lectures from Janssen, Lundbeck, Lilly, Otsuka and Sunovian.
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