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Advanced Automatic Collision Notification (AACN) services in passenger vehicles capture crash data during collisions that could be transferred to Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers. This study explored how EMS response times and other crash factors impacted the odds of fatality. The goal was to determine if information transmitted by AACN could help decrease mortality by allowing EMS providers to be better prepared upon arrival at the scene of a collision.
The Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database of the US Department of Transportation/National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (USDOT/NHTSA; Washington DC, USA) was searched for all fatal crashes between 1996 and 2012. The CIREN database also was searched for illustrative cases. The NHTSA’s Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS CDS) databases were queried for all fatal crashes between 2000 and 2011 that involved a passenger vehicle. Detailed EMS time data were divided into prehospital time segments and analyzed descriptively as well as via multiple logistic regression models.
The CIREN data showed that longer times from the collision to notification of EMS providers were associated with more frequent invasive interventions within the first three hours of hospital admission and more transfers from a regional hospital to a trauma center. The NASS CDS and FARS data showed that rural collisions with crash-notification times >30 minutes were more likely to be fatal than collisions with similar crash-notification times occurring in urban environments. The majority of a patient’s prehospital time occurred between the arrival of EMS providers on-scene and arrival at a hospital. The need for extrication increased the on-scene time segment as well as total prehospital time.
An AACN may help decrease mortality following a motor vehicle collision (MVC) by alerting EMS providers earlier and helping them discern when specialized equipment will be necessary in order to quickly extricate patients from the collision site and facilitate expeditious transfer to an appropriate hospital or trauma center.
PlevinRE, KaufmanR, Fraade-BlanarL, BulgerEM. Evaluating the Potential Benefits of Advanced Automatic Crash Notification. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(2):156–164.
Mass casualty triage is the process of prioritizing multiple victims when resources are not sufficient to treat everyone immediately. No national guideline for mass casualty triage exists in the United States. The lack of a national guideline has resulted in variability in triage processes, tags, and nomenclature. This variability has the potential to inject confusion and miscommunication into the disaster incident, particularly when multiple jurisdictions are involved. The Model Uniform Core Criteria for Mass Casualty Triage were developed to be a national guideline for mass casualty triage to ensure interoperability and standardization when responding to a mass casualty incident. The Core Criteria consist of 4 categories: general considerations, global sorting, lifesaving interventions, and individual assessment of triage category. The criteria within each of these categories were developed by a workgroup of experts representing national stakeholder organizations who used the best available science and, when necessary, consensus opinion. This article describes how the Model Uniform Core Criteria for Mass Casualty Triage were developed.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2011;5:129-137)
Mass casualty triage is a critical skill. Although many systems exist to guide providers in making triage decisions, there is little scientific evidence available to demonstrate that any of the available systems have been validated. Furthermore, in the United States there is little consistency from one jurisdiction to the next in the application of mass casualty triage methodology. There are no nationally agreed upon categories or color designations. This review reports on a consensus committee process used to evaluate and compare commonly used triage systems, and to develop a proposed national mass casualty triage guideline. The proposed guideline, entitled SALT (sort, assess, life-saving interventions, treatment and/or transport) triage, was developed based on the best available science and consensus opinion. It incorporates aspects from all of the existing triage systems to create a single overarching guide for unifying the mass casualty triage process across the United States. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2008;2(Suppl 1):S25–S34)
Currently, there is little in the literature regarding the ability of rear seatbacks to act as a protective barrier from cargo in frontal crashes. However, it has been shown that unrestrained rear passengers pose a danger to front seat occupants. The association of rear seatback failures and intrusions with mortality and serious injury were examined.
The Seattle CIREN database for restrained, rear-seat passengers in front-end crashes with seatback failure or intrusion was searched. Injury patterns and crash characteristics, including the role of unrestrained cargo were examined. Next, the National Automotive Sampling System- Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database was queried for restrained rear-seat passengers in front-end crashes with recorded seat failure or intrusion. Mortality, maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score and mean Injury Severity Scale (ISS) scores were compared with passengers who had no failure or intrusion. Linear regression was used to identify the differences between the groups. Logistic regression was used to estimate the mortality risk associated with seat failure.
There were four CIREN cases that met the criteria. In each case, the occupant suffered significant injury or death. All four of the seat failures were the result of unrestrained cargo striking the seatback. The CDS data revealed a statistically significantly increased mortality (OR = 18.9, 95% CI = 14.0–25.7) associated with seat failure. Both the maximum AIS and mean of the ISS scores were higher in the failure/intrusion group (p <0.0001).
Rear seatback failure/intrusion is associated with increased mortality and injury. Case reports suggest unrestrained cargo plays a significant role in these injuries.
Restraint misuse is a common problem leading to increased morbidity and mortality for children involved in motor vehicle crashes. The purpose of this project was to describe the injury patterns associated with restraint misuse in the pediatric population, with particular focus on clues to significant injury that can be identified by the prehospital provider that may impact subsequent triage decisions.
This is a case series presentation that illustrates the injury patterns associated with various types of restraint misuse in infants (ages 0–1 years), toddlers (age 1–4 years), young children (ages 4–8 years), and pre-teens (ages 8–14 years). Cases were identified from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database.
Six cases are presented that illustrate the injury patterns associated with misuse of rear-facing infant car seats (0–1 years), forward-facing child seats (1–4 years), booster seats (4–8 years), and shoulder belts (8–14 years). Prehospital assessment of appropriate restraint use is described.
Restraint misuse in children is a common problem. Emergency medical services providers need to be aware of these issues when assessing children and determining appropriate triage to a trauma center. Ongoing educational efforts also are vital to inform parents regarding the risks of inappropriate restraint use and can encourage legislators to better define appropriate restraint use for older children.
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