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Guided parent-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (GPD-CBT) is an effective low-intensity treatment for childhood anxiety disorder in Western countries and can increase access to evidence-based psychological therapies.
This study aimed to examine its feasibility in a Japanese sample.
Twelve children with anxiety disorders and their parents participated in the study, and ten children and parents completed the program. Participants were assessed at pre-, post- and one-month follow-up using a diagnostic interview for anxiety disorders, self- and parent-report measures for anxiety, depression, parental behaviour, and parental anxiety.
Four children (40% of completers) were free from their primary diagnoses immediately following the brief treatment, and seven children (70%) at the one-month follow-up. Changes in disorder severity, child and parent reported anxiety symptoms, and child reported depression symptoms were consistent with those found in Western trials of GPD-CBT and of Japanese trials of more intensive CBT for child anxiety disorders that involves both the child and the parent. Moderate increases were also found in child reported parental autonomy behaviours; however, there were only small changes in parent self-reported anxiety.
These results support the potential of GPD-CBT to increase access to evidence-based treatments for anxiety disorders in Japanese children.
The formation of europium sulfides (Eu3S4 and EuS) via CS2 gas sulfurization of Eu2O3 powder was investigated. Single-phase Eu3S4 was obtained via CS2 gas sulfurization of Eu2O3 at 773 K for periods longer than 0.5 hr and EuS was generated by sulfurization at 1073 K for 8 hr. The higher sulfurization temperature and shorter sulfurization time accelerated the formation of high purity EuS. Synthetic pure Eu3S4 was treated under vacuum, rich-sulfur atmosphere and inert atmosphere, respectively. EuS was obtained when heat treatment was performed at 873 K under vacuum, at 973 K under CS2/Ar atmosphere, and at 1073 K under Ar atmosphere. Heat treatment of Eu3S4 generated a small amount of Eu2O2S due to impurity oxygen. Formation of Eu2O2S could be inhibited by heat treatment under CS2/Ar atmosphere.
HoxEr1-xN (x=0.25, 0.5, 0.75) samples were synthesized by nitriding of HoxEr1-x alloy bars and their thermal conductivity κ were measured. The measured κ values were comparable to those of stainless steel and Er3Ni. Ho0.5Er0.5N showed the highest κ of the present three samples. The thermal diffusivity calculated from the κ and the specific heat indicates that Ho0.5Er0.5N is a very promising regenerator material for the cryocoolers. The electrical resistivity ρ was also measured as a function of temperature.
A magnetic refrigeration test was performed using a test device filled with spherical GdN material synthesized by the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) method. Refrigeration with an active magnetic regenerator cycle was tested in the temperature range between 48 and 66 K, with the field changing from 1.2 to 3.7 T and 2.0 to 4.0 T at upper and lower sides of the regenerator bed filled with the GdN spheres, respectively. Temperature spans about of 2 K were obtained at both sides, and the total temperature span in each cycle attained about 5 K. The specific heat of the material was measured to calculate the magnetic entropy change ΔS and the adiabatic temperature change ΔT induced by the magnetic field change ΔH. It was suggested that for a given ΔH, larger ΔS and ΔT can be exploited when demagnetized to lower H, especially, to zero field.
Recent photoemission studies on heavily boron-doped superconducting diamond films, reporting the electronic structure evolution as a function of boron concentrations, are reviewed. From soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, which directly measures electronic band dispersions, depopulation of electrons (or formation of hole pockets) at the top of the valence band were clearly observed. This indicates that the holes at the top of the valence bands are responsible for the metallic properties and hence superconductivity at lower temperatures. Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy observed shift of the main C 1s core level and intensity evolution of a lower binding energy additional structure, suggesting chemical potential shift, carrier doping efficiency by boron doping, and possibility of boron-related cluster formations.
A large vagal neurilemmoma in a 33-year-old man is reported. He complained of slowly progressive palsy of the tongue on the left side. Weakness of soft palate movement was also noted. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a tumour in the left parapharyngeal space with partial extension to the posterior cranial fossa through the jugular foramen. Carotid angiography revealed avascularity of the tumour and anterior shift of the left internal carotid artery. The venous phase showed no blood flow in the internal jugular vein. The tumour was successfully extirpated via a transmandibular transpterygoid approach. Although vagus nerve dysfunction was not observed pre-operatively, the tumour was identified as a neurilemmoma arising from the vagus nerve. The surgical approach should be selected according to the lesion in individual patients. Since neurilemmoma is benign in nature, minimal post-operative sequelae should be expected.
In order to measure the concentrations of anthropogenically influenced gases in the stratosphere, we have collected air samples from the lower stratosphere since 1985, by a balloon-borne cryogenic sampling method, developed at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). Air samples of ≃16 liters at STP were collected in the stratosphere at altitudes from 18.6 to 30.4 km, over the northeastern part of Japan (39.5°N, 139–142°E), on 1 September 1989. We conducted 14C analyses to study the vertical and horizontal air-mass movement in the stratosphere, and to investigate the air transport mechanism between troposphere and stratosphere. Carbon dioxide (containing a few mg carbon) was separated cryogenically from the air samples, and the 14C concentration of the CO2 was measured by a Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer, using Fe-graphite targets prepared by reducing CO2 on Fe-powder with hydrogen in a Vycor tube at 650°. The 14C concentrations, expressed as Δ14C, of CO2 were 267–309‰ at altitudes of 21–30 km, and 134‰ at 19–20 km. The Δ14C values at 21–30 km were higher than those of the current tropospheric CO2, of around 80–200‰. The observed 14C concentrations, higher in the stratosphere than the troposphere, seem to be explained by large bomb-produced 14C inventories and/or high 14C production by cosmic rays, as well as weak vertical mixing of air masses in the stratosphere.
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