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This chapter discusses the minimal synopsis of selected airway pathology in terms of associated anesthetic and airway implications. The case types covered are those where awake intubation by some means is often the method of choice. Epiglottitis can occur in adults too but the situation is less dreadful because the adult airway is larger. Retropharyngeal abscess formation may occur from bacterial infection of the retropharyngeal space secondary to tonsillar or dental infections. Airway tumors can be benign or malignant, but regardless of type, suffocation from airway obstruction is always a potential concern. Nasal polyps and polyps elsewhere in the airway can lead to partial or complete airway obstruction. Patients with laryngeal papillomatosis caused by a HPV infection may require frequent application of laser treatment for attempted eradication of the papillomas. Since Ludwig's angina is often associated with trismus, nasal fiberoptic intubation is frequently needed.
Scoliosis is a complex deformity of the spine with lateral curvature and rotation of the thoracolumbar vertebrae leading to rib cage deformity. The goals for surgical treatment are to prevent progression, improve alignment and balance, and to avoid negative outcomes of the natural history of the disease without introducing iatrogenic complications. This chapter presents a case study of a 16-year-old female presented for posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion from T4-L2. The possibility of postoperative facial swelling and the remote chance of postoperative mechanical ventilation were also discussed. The most common form of scoliosis encountered is adolescent idiopathic scoliosis followed by neuromuscular scoliosis and their management can be quite different. Despite modern technology, scoliosis still carries a small but grave risk of mortality and morbidity. The key for an uneventful anesthetic is proper planning and knowledge of potential complications in order to avoid them.