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To provide comprehensive population-level estimates of the burden of healthcare-associated influenza.
Retrospective cross-sectional study.
US Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) during 2012–2013 through 2018–2019 influenza seasons.
Laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalizations in an 8-county catchment area in Tennessee.
The incidence of healthcare-associated influenza was determined using the traditional definition (ie, positive influenza test after hospital day 3) in addition to often underrecognized cases associated with recent post-acute care facility admission or a recent acute care hospitalization for a noninfluenza illness in the preceding 7 days.
Among the 5,904 laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalizations, 147 (2.5%) had traditionally defined healthcare-associated influenza. When we included patients with a positive influenza test obtained in the first 3 days of hospitalization and who were either transferred to the hospital directly from a post-acute care facility or who were recently discharged from an acute care facility for a noninfluenza illness in the preceding 7 days, we identified an additional 1,031 cases (17.5% of all influenza-related hospitalizations).
Including influenza cases associated with preadmission healthcare exposures with traditionally defined cases resulted in an 8-fold higher incidence of healthcare-associated influenza. These results emphasize the importance of capturing other healthcare exposures that may serve as the initial site of viral transmission to provide more comprehensive estimates of the burden of healthcare-associated influenza and to inform improved infection prevention strategies.
We investigated whether people’s risk taking tendency established in one domain (gains or losses) carries over to the other domain. Participants played a game in which they made repeated decisions between a fixed payoff and a risky option, where the outcome of the risky option depended on whether they had responded correctly on a difficult perceptual-memory task. In some trials, participants played to gain points; on others, they played to avoid losing points. In two studies, we observed the following pattern of results. 1) Participants risked less on gain trials than on loss trials. 2) This difference in risk taking persisted (carried over) when the domain changed from gains to losses and vice versa (with the effect of experiencing losses first being stronger than the effect of experiencing gains first). 3) There was no analogous carryover effect on responses to a delay discounting measure, but there was a carryover effect on responses on a risk attitude measure. We compare these results with those from other recent studies and discuss various ways of explaining them.
Using physiological markers to detect patients at risk of deterioration is common. Deaths at music festivals in Australia prompted scrutiny of tools to identify critically unwell patients for transport to hospital. This study evaluated initial physiological parameters to identify patients selected for transport to hospital from a music festival.
A retrospective audit of 2045 presentations at music festivals in Victoria, Australia, was performed. Presentation heart rate, systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, temperature, and Glasgow Coma Scale were assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) analysis, with a prespecified threshold of 0.7.
The only measured variable to exceed the prespecified cutpoint was initial systolic blood pressure, with an AUROC of 0.72 and optimal cutpoint of 122 mmHg. Using commonly accepted cutpoints for variables did not improve detection performance to acceptable levels, nor did using combination systems of cutpoints.
Initial physiological variables are poor predictors of the decision to transport to hospital from music festivals. Systolic blood pressure was significant, but only at a clinically insignificant value. Decisions on which patients to transport from an event site should incorporate more information than initial physiology. Senior clinicians should lead decision-making about hospital transport from music festivals.
Background: Despite significant morbidity and mortality, estimates of the burden of healthcare-associated viral respiratory infections (HA-VRI) for noninfluenza infections are limited. Of the studies assessing the burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), cases are typically classified as healthcare associated if a positive test result occurred after the first 3 days following admission, which may miss healthcare exposures prior to admission. Utilizing an expanded definition of healthcare-associated RSV, we assessed the estimates of disease prevalence. Methods: This study included laboratory-confirmed cases of RSV in adult and pediatric patients admitted to acute-care hospitals in a catchment area of 8 counties in Tennessee identified between October 1, 2016, and April 30, 2019. Surveillance information was abstracted from hospital and state laboratory databases, hospital infection control databases, reportable condition databases, and electronic health records as a part of the Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network by the Emerging Infections Program. Cases were defined as healthcare-associated RSV if laboratory confirmation of infection occurred (1) on or after hospital day 4 (ie, “traditional definition”) or (2) between hospital day 0 and 3 in patients transferred from a chronic care facility or with a recent discharge from another acute-care facility in the 7 days preceding the current index admission (ie, “enhanced definition”). The proportion of laboratory-confirmed RSV designated as HA-VRI using both the traditional definition as well as with the added enhanced definition were compared. Results: We identified 900 cases of RSV in hospitalized patients over the study period. Using the traditional definition for HA-VRI, only 41 (4.6%) were deemed healthcare associated. Adding the cases identified using the enhanced definition, an additional 12 cases (1.3%) were noted in patients transferred from a chronic care facility for the current acute-care admission and 17 cases (1.9%) were noted in patients with a prior acute-care admission in the preceding 7 days. Using our expanded definition, the total proportion of healthcare-associated RSV in this cohort was 69 (7.7%) of 900 compared to 13.1% of cases for influenza (Figure 1). Although the burden of HA-VRI due to RSV was less than that of influenza, when stratified by age, the rate increased to 11.7% for those aged 50–64 years and to 10.1% for those aged ≥65 years (Figure 2). Conclusions: RSV infections are often not included in estimates of HA-VRI, but the proportion of cases that are healthcare associated are substantial. Typical surveillance methods likely underestimate the burden of disease related to RSV, especially for those aged ≥50 years.
Background: Healthcare-associated transmission of influenza leads to significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. Most studies classify healthcare-associated viral respiratory infections (HA-VRI) as those with a positive test result after the first 3 days following admission, which does not account for healthcare exposures prior to admission. Utilizing an expanded definition of healthcare-associated influenza, we aimed to improve the estimates of disease prevalence on a population level. Methods: This study included laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza in adult and pediatric patients admitted to any acute-care hospital in a catchment area of 8 counties Tennessee identified between October 1, 2012, and April 30, 2019. Surveillance information was abstracted from hospital and state laboratory databases, hospital infection control practitioner databases, reportable condition databases, and electronic health records as a part of the Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Emerging Infections Program (EIP). Cases were defined as healthcare-associated influenza laboratory confirmation of infection occurred (1) on or after hospital day 4 (“traditional definition”), or (2) between hospital days 0 and 3 in patients transferred from a chronic care facility or with a recent discharge from another acute-care facility in the 7 days preceding the current index admission (ie, enhanced definition). The proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza designated as HA-VRI using both the traditional definition as well as with the added enhanced definition were compared. Data were imported into Stata software for analysis. Results: We identified 5,904 cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza in hospitalized patients over the study period. Using the traditional definition for HA-VRI, only 147 (2.5%, seasonal range 1.3%–3.4%) were deemed healthcare associated (Figure 1). Adding the cases identified using the enhanced definition, an additional 317 (5.4%, range 2.3%–6.7%) cases were noted in patients transferred from a chronic care facility for the current acute-care admission and 336 cases (5.7%; range, 4.1%–7.4%) were noted in patients with a prior acute-care facility admission in the preceding 7 days. Using our expanded definition, the total proportion of healthcare-associated influenza in this cohort was 772 of 5,904 (13.1%; range, 10.6%–14.8%). Conclusion: HA-VRI due to influenza is an underrecognized infection in hospitalized patients. Limiting surveillance assessment of this important outcome to just those patients with a positive influenza test after hospital day 3 captured only 19% of possible healthcare-associated influenza infections across 7 influenza seasons. These results suggest that the traditionally used definitions of healthcare-associated influenza underestimate the true burden of cases.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We compared the validity of an International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification (ICD) algorithm for identifying high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma in situ (together referred to as CIN2+) from ICD 9th revision (ICD-9) and 10th revision (ICD-10) codes. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Using Tennessee Medicaid data, we identified cervical diagnostic procedures in 2008-2017 among females aged 18-39 years in Davidson County, TN. Gold-standard cases were pathology-confirmed CIN2+ diagnoses validated by HPV-IMPACT, a population-based surveillance project in catchment areas of five US states. Procedures in the ICD transition year (2015) were excluded to account for implementation lag. We pre-grouped diagnosis and procedure codes by theme. We performed feature selection using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression with 10-fold cross validation and validated models by ICD-9 era (2008-2014, N = 6594) and ICD-10 era (2016-2017, N = 1270). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of 7864 cervical diagnostic procedures, 880 (11%) were true CIN2+ cases. LASSO logistic regression selected the strongest features of case status: Having codes for a CIN2+ tissue diagnosis, non-specific CIN tissue diagnosis, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, receiving a cervical treatment procedure, and receiving a cervical/vaginal biopsy. Features of non-case status were codes for a CIN1 tissue diagnosis, Pap test, and HPV DNA test. The ICD-9 vs ICD-10 algorithms predicted case status with 68% vs 63% sensitivity, 95% vs 94% specificity, 63% vs 64% positive predictive value, 96% vs 94% negative predictive value, 92% vs 89% accuracy, and C-indices of 0.95 vs 0.92, respectively. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Overall, the algorithm’s validity for identifying CIN2+ case status was similar between coding versions. ICD-9 had slightly better discriminative ability. Results support a prior study concluding that ICD-10 implementation has not substantially improved the quality of administrative data from ICD-9.
This project will work closely with existing service partners involved in street level services and focus on testing and evaluating three approaches for street level interventions for youth who are homeless and who have severe or moderate mentally illness. Youth will be asked to choose their preferred service approach:
Housing First related initiatives focused on interventions designed to move youth to appropriate and available housing and ongoing housing supports.
Treatment First initiatives to provide Mental Health/Addiction supports and treatment solutions, and; Simultaneous attention to both Housing and Treatment Together
Our primary objective is to understand the service delivery preferences of homeless youth and understand the outcomes of these choices. Our research questions include:
1. Which approaches to service are chosen by youth?
2. What are the differences and similarities between groups choosing each approach?
3. What are the critical ingredients needed to effectively implement services for homeless youth from the perspectives of youth, families and service providers?
Focus groups with staff and family members will occur to assist in understanding the nature of each of service approach, changes that evolve within services, & facilitators and barriers to service delivery. This work will be important in determining which approach is chosen by youth and why. Evaluating the outcomes with each choice will provide valuable information about outcomes for the service options chosen by youth. This assist in better identifying weaknesses in the services offered and inform further development of treatment options that youth will accept.
Triage at mass gatherings in Australia is commonly performed by staff members with first aid training. There have been no evaluations of the performance of first aid staff with respect to diagnostic accuracy or identification of presentations requiring ambulance transport to hospital.
It was hypothesized that triage decisions by first aid staff would be considered correct in at least 61% of presentations.
A retrospective audit of 1,048 presentations to a single supplier of event health care services in Australia was conducted. The presentations were assessed based on the first measured set of physiological parameters, and the primary triage decision was classified as “expected” if the primary and secondary triage classifications were the same or “not expected” if they differed. The performance of the two triage systems was compared using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) analysis.
The expected decision was made by first aid staff in 674 (71%) of presentations. Under-triage occurred in 131 (14%) presentations and over-triage in 142 (15%) presentations. The primary triage strategy had an AUROC of 0.7644, while the secondary triage strategy had an AUROC of 0.6280, which was significantly different (P = .0199).
The results support the continued use of first aid trained staff members in triage roles at Australian mass gatherings. Triage tools should be simple, and the addition of physiological variables to improve the sensitivity of triage tools is not recommended because such an approach does not improve the discriminatory capacity of the tools.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: We aimed to assess trends in incidence of genital warts across human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine-eligible and nonvaccine-eligible age groups to determine the impact of the HPV vaccine among Medicaid enrollees in the state of Tennessee. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We analyzed 2006–2014 medical and pharmaceutical claims data from TennCare (Tennessee’s Medicaid program) enrollees aged 15–64 years. Incident cases of genital warts were defined as persons 12 months disease free and: (1) a diagnosis of condyloma acuminatum, or (2) a diagnosis of viral warts and genital-specific procedure, or (3) a prescription for genital warts medication and genital-specific procedure. Mann-Kendall trend tests were performed to assess for significant trends in incidence of genital warts by sex and age group; average annual percent changes were calculated to quantify these trends. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our analysis is in progress. We hypothesize that we will observe declines in genital warts among younger, vaccine-eligible age groups and no changes in older, nonvaccine-eligible age groups, with largest declines among females aged 15–19 years from 2006 to 2014. We also expect to see declines among younger males due to herd protection, with greater declines after 2011, when the vaccine was approved for males. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Significant declines among younger compared with older age groups would suggest HPV vaccine effectiveness for preventing genital warts.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: As part of a larger effort to create a longitudinal record of care for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Delaware, we assessed transitions of care from pediatric to adult care. This study examined the length of time between last pediatric contact and first contact in the adult system in order to determine characteristics associated with delayed transition to adult care. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Patients who receive pediatric care at the Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children (Nemours) are transitioned to adult care between the ages of 18 and 21. Our study population consists of all patients seen in the Nephrology unit at Nemours for CKD, hypertension (HTN), or diabetes who turned 21 years old between 2007 and 2013. Records of office visits from Nemours, Christiana Care Health System (CCHS), and Nephrology Associates, P.A. (NAPA) were transformed into the OMOP common data model and merged. Patients who had at least 1 record in the Nemours EHR of pediatric care before age 21 and had at least 1 record in the CCHS or NAPA adult EHRs were considered transitioned. To identify characteristics associated with delayed transition to adult care, we compared gender, race, ethnicity, age, comorbidities, and level of kidney function at the last pediatric visit between patients whose transition gap was less than 1 year and patients whose gap was 1 year or more. Kidney function was estimated by calculating glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Nemours estimates GFR in children using the revised Schwartz equation, which is based on serum creatinine and height. To calculate adult GFR, we used the CKD-Epi equation, which is based on serum creatinine, age, sex, and race and is widely used to derive adult GFR. As kidney function declines, GFR decreases. We used Fisher exact test to compare categorical variables and t-test to compare age and GFR. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We found only 109 (25%) patients who had records in our adult offices out of the 440 Nemours patients in our data set. Of the 109 transitioned patients, 54 had office visits at CCHS, 37 at NAPA, and 18 at both locations. Examining the office visits of the 109 transitioned patients, 34 (31%) had an overlap in visits defined as an office visit at CCHS or NAPA before the last office visit at Nemours, and 75 (69%) did not have an overlap. The median gap between last pediatric and first adult office visit for the 75 patients without an overlap was 615 days (range 8–3495 d). Only 6 (6%) of the 109 transitioned patients had overlapping GFR measurements from pediatric to adult care, and all of the adult GFR calculations (CKD-Epi) were greater than the pediatric GFR calculations (Schwartz). The difference between child and adult GFR ranged from 8.2 to 87.1 mL/minute per 1.72 m2. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: During the transition from pediatric care to adult care, many young adults with CKD experience declines in health outcomes and comorbidities such as diabetes and HTN complicate self-management. Lack of overlap between pediatric and adult care office visits indicates a delay in executing this transition. In our population of 109 transitioned patients, 69% did not have an overlap in care, and 50% of those without overlap had a gap of more than 615 days (1 y, 8 mo). Our analysis suggests that young adults who are younger at last pediatric office visit are more likely to delay transitioning to adult care. Transitioning from the nurturing environment of pediatric care to adult care is a complex process and could be challenging for young adults with CKD. Transition clinics may be necessary to improve the coordination of care and help these young adults keep their physician appointments.
Peatlands are widely exploited archives of paleoenvironmental change. We developed and compared multiple transfer functions to infer peatland depth to the water table (DWT) and pH based on testate amoeba (percentages, or presence/absence), bryophyte presence/absence, and vascular plant presence/absence data from sub-alpine peatlands in the SE Swiss Alps in order to 1) compare the performance of single-proxy vs. multi-proxy models and 2) assess the performance of presence/absence models. Bootstrapping cross-validation showing the best performing single-proxy transfer functions for both DWT and pH were those based on bryophytes. The best performing transfer functions overall for DWT were those based on combined testate amoebae percentages, bryophytes and vascular plants; and for pH, those based on testate amoebae and bryophytes. The comparison of DWT and pH inferred from testate amoeba percentages and presence/absence data showed similar general patterns but differences in the magnitude and timing of some shifts. These results show new directions for paleoenvironmental research, 1) suggesting that it is possible to build good-performing transfer functions using presence/absence data, although with some loss of accuracy, and 2) supporting the idea that multi-proxy inference models may improve paleoecological reconstruction. The performance of multi-proxy and single-proxy transfer functions should be further compared in paleoecological data.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
Pelagic marine mammals (cetaceans and pinnipeds) generally invaded the seas rapidly in response to new ecologic opportunities. After cetaceans initially appeared and radiated in the Eocene, they declined in the Oligocene, but radiated into many new adaptive types in the Miocene. Pinnipeds apparently evolved in the earliest Miocene, rapidly radiating into many adaptive types. We propose that the radiations, and declines, of species were responses to the availability of trophic resources in oceanic environments. These trophic resources are closely related to upwelling processes in the oceans. We suggest that increased upwelling intensity, due to climatic or tectonic events, permitted the initial invasions and radiations and that decreased intensity caused cetacean extinctions in the Oligocene.
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.
New findings regarding the mechanisms of action of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have led to novel developments in treatment technique to further improve this highly effective treatment for major depression. These new approaches include novel electrode placements, optimization of electrical stimulus parameters, and new methods for inducing more targeted seizures (eg, magnetic seizure therapy [MST]). MST is the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation to induce a seizure. Magnetic fields pass through tissue unimpeded, providing more control over the site and extent of stimulation than can be achieved with ECT. This enhanced control represents a means of focusing the treatment on target cortical structures thought to be essential to antidepressant response and reducing spread to medial temporal regions implicated in the cognitive side effects of ECT. MST is at an early stage of development. Preliminary results suggest that MST may have some advantages over ECT in terms of subjective side effects and acute cognitive functioning. Studies designed to address the antidepressant efficacy of MST are underway. As with all attempts to improve convulsive therapy technique, the clinical value of MST will need to be established through controlled clinical trials. This article reviews the experience to date with MST, and places this work in the broader context of other means of optimizing convulsive therapy in the treatment of depression.