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Precision Medicine is an emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle. Autoimmune diseases are those in which the body’s natural defense system loses discriminating power between its own cells and foreign cells, causing the body to mistakenly attack healthy tissues. These conditions are very heterogeneous in their presentation and therefore difficult to diagnose and treat. Achieving precision medicine in autoimmune diseases has been challenging due to the complex etiologies of these conditions, involving an interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. However, recent technological and computational advances in molecular profiling have helped identify patient subtypes and molecular pathways which can be used to improve diagnostics and therapeutics. This review discusses the current understanding of the disease mechanisms, heterogeneity, and pathogenic autoantigens in autoimmune diseases gained from genomic and transcriptomic studies and highlights how these findings can be applied to better understand disease heterogeneity in the context of disease diagnostics and therapeutics.
The KRAS oncogene is believed to be the most common single nucleotide variant oncogene in human cancer. Historically, efforts to target KRAS and the other RAS GTPases have struggled. More recently, efforts have focused on identifying and exploiting features unique to specific oncogenic mutations. This has led to the first FDA approval for a RAS targeted therapy. This new agent is a covalent inhibitor that reacts with the cysteine residue created by a codon 12 glycine to cysteine (G12C) mutation within KRAS. Mutant-specific strategies may also exist for other KRAS single nucleotide variants, and recent studies provide examples and mechanisms.