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Mid-nineteenth-century Victorian England was roiled by public controversies regarding the legitimacy of biblical criticism, largely fueled by Anglicans and the Church of England establishment. Jews were well aware of these public controversies and even spoke out in a forthright manner. At this very juncture there was also a rather remarkable Jewish scholar, Marcus Kalisch, who began to advance critical notions in his commentary to the Pentateuch, ultimately coming to conclusions not altogether different from the leading critical scholars in Germany. This article explores the way in which Anglo-Jews first avoided, and then finally confronted, Kalisch's work, and what that said about communal sensitivities and self-consciousness.
It is widely assumed that Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was an idealist, indeed, the pre-eminent philosopher of idealism. Hegel insisted, however, that idealism is not to be understood as the antithesis of realism; rather, it overreaches and embraces realism. Hegel's distinction between representation (Vorstellung) and concept (Begrif) and his way of connecting them, has played a fateful role in the history of idealist interpretations of the Bible. Hegel knew that ultimately only faith can see that God is present in Christ. The two principal disciples of Hegel in biblical studies were David Friedrich Strauss and Ferdinand Christian Baur. Strauss severed Hegel's mediation of the real and the ideal, Vorstellung and Begrif, whereas Baur re-established it on a critical basis. The chapter focuses on Christology because it is what connects the three thinkers in their interpretations of the Bible. As far as Jesus' divinity is concerned, Baur interpreted it in Hegelian fashion, but with an interesting variation.
The immediate postweaning period in pigs is often characterised by a reduced and variable food intake, digestive disorders and poor growth and development. Historically such effects were reduced by the use of in-feed antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs), copper sulphate and zinc oxide to enhance the efficiency of feed conversion and hence maximise nutrient capture. However from January 2006 the routine use of in-feed AGPs was banned and, due to concern over environmental pollution, levels of inclusion of heavy metals are limited by regulation and likely to be further reduced in the future. Weaning pigs at a later age has been suggested as an approach to reduce the potentially negative effects of the AGP ban on the national herd. The objective of the AGEWEAN programme of research was to investigate the effects of weaning age (4, 6 and 8 weeks) in both an indoor and outdoor lactation environment on the biological and economic efficiency of production where diets contain no AGPs and lower levels of copper (<25ppm added) and zinc (<100ppm added).
Weaning pigs from the sow at an older age, when their digestive systems are more mature, has been suggested as an approach to reduce the potentially negative effect of the in-feed antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) ban on the national pig herd. Whilst this approach has been shown to improve feed intake and piglet growth rate during the early postweaning period (Edge et al. 2006) it is also important to consider how changes in weaning age may influence sow productivity and longevity in the herd. The AGEWEAN programme of research followed 570 gilts whose piglets were weaned at either 4, 6 or 8 weeks of age through four successive parities; reproductive performance, litter data and the timing and reasons for any sow being culled from the herd were recorded.
The immediate postweaning period in pigs is often characterised by a reduced and variable food intake and poor growth and development, reducing lifetime performance. At present the effects of the postweaning growth check are reduced by the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs), copper sulphate and zinc oxide to enhance the efficiency of feed conversion and hence maximise nutrient capture. However from January 2006 the routine use of in feed AGPs is to be banned and, due to concern over environmental pollution, levels of inclusion of heavy metals are likely to be further reduced. Weaning pigs from the sow at an older age, when their digestive systems are more mature, has been suggested as an approach to reduce the potential negative effect of the AGP ban on the national herd. The objective of the AGEWEAN programme of research is to investigate the effects of weaning age (4, 6 and 8 weeks) in both an indoor and outdoor lactation environment on biological and economic efficiency of a production system where diets contain no AGPs and lower levels of copper (<25ppm added) and zinc (<100ppm added).
Approximately 5% of pigs slaughtered in the UK have been tail-bitten, leading to welfare and production issues. Tail biting is sporadic and not all pigs tail bite. The aim of this study was to identify factors that are common in pigs that perform tail-biting behaviour, and that might be used in a predictive way to identify such animals.
The behaviour of 159 pigs was observed in the post-weaning period. Pigs were weaned at 4 weeks of age. In the week prior to weaning and at 6 weeks of age each pig was individually tested in a tail chew test (tail chew test 1 and 2, respectively). The tail chew test involved recording the pig's behaviour directed towards two ropes, one of which had been soaked in saline solution and the other not. The production performance of the pigs was recorded from birth to 7 weeks of age. Time spent performing tail-biting behaviour correlated positively with time in contact with the rope in tail chew test 2 (r = 0·224, P < 0·05), and time spent ear biting correlated positively with time spent in rope directed behaviour in tail chew test 1 (r = 0·248, P < 0·01). Pigs that spent as much as 1·5% of their time of more performing tail-biting behaviour were lighter at weaning (26 days) and tended to be lighter at 7 weeks of age compared with pigs that spent less than 1·5% of their time performing tail-biting behaviour (weaning weight: ≥1·5% tail biting 8·96 kg, <1·5% tail biting 9·67 kg, P < 0·05; 7-week weight: ≥1·5% tail biting 15·75 kg, <1·5% tail biting 17·09 kg, P < 0·08). There was no significant difference in birth weight between pigs that spent ≥ or <1·5% of their time performing tail-biting behaviour. Pigs that spent 1·5% of their time or more performing tail-biting behaviour showed significantly lower growth rates between birth and weaning (≥1·5% tail biting 260 g/day, <1·5% tail biting 285 g/day, P < 0·05) but not between weaning and 7 weeks of age (≥1·5% tail biting 343 g/day, <1·5% tail biting 365 g/day, P > 0·05).
The results suggest that pigs that tail bite have some nutritional deficiency that results in performance of foraging behaviour that is expressed in intensive housing as ear/tail biting.
The development of adverse behaviour in group–housed growing/ finishing pigs with intact tails was studied in a straw–flow housing system and in a part–slatted system with a commercial enrichment object. Food intake, body weight and behaviour were monitored over the finishing period, with tail biting outbreaks defined as an occasion where three or more pigs within a group had freshly damaged tails and tail biting behaviour was ongoing. Data from the two systems were analysed to identify tail–biting outbreaks and behavioural changes over time. Levels of pig manipulation were higher in the part–slatted system. Over time, pigs in both systems showed reduced interest in the enrichment provided, but not in each other. Despite the presence of the enrichment device, tail biting occurred in all groups in the part–slatted system, but only 1/12 groups in the straw–flow system. The amount of time occupied by manipulation of the enrichment provided was very significantly higher for straw than for the commercial object. Better design of enrichment strategies is therefore needed and should be based on species–relevant requirements.
The objective of this experiment was to measure the effects of preand postnatal supplementation of sows with an algal source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the pre and post–weaning performance of their piglets. The experiment was of 2 x 2 factorial design, with DHA supplementation of the sow diet (3g DHA/kg feed) during the last 4 weeks of pregnancy and/or 4 weeks of lactation. There was a significant positive effect (P<0.05) of lactation DHA on weaning weight. Piglets from sows which had received DHA supplement in gestation were heavier throughout the post–weaning period than controls (P<0.05), as were piglets whose mothers received DHA in lactation (P<0.05). When age and weight at weaning were used as covariates in the model, the liveweight gain in week 1 and over the whole 26 day post–weaning period were significantly greater (P<0.05) for piglets from sows which had received DHA supplement in gestation. It is concluded that DHA supplementation of sow diets can improve piglet performance.
Recent research suggests that the genetic makeup of a pig may contribute to the expression of tail biting (Breuer et al., 2002). To date there has been little investigation into the genetics of tail biting. A significant population of tail biters was found at a commercial pig breeding farm at which an experiment on the genetic basis of the expression of harmful social behaviour was being performed. As pedigree data for each pig on the farm were available, the opportunity was taken to investigate the heritability of tail biting by recording the perpetrators of clinical tail biting.
The performance of tail biting and other harmful social behaviours is a common problem on pig farms. Many risk factors relating to tail biting have been identified, but the problem remains intractable. One contributory factor may be the genetic makeup of pigs but, as with most pig behaviour, there has been little research into the genetic basis of its expression. The aim of the current experiment was to investigate the genetic component of harmful social behaviours, such as tail biting, by assessing breed differences in the predisposition to perform these behaviours.
IN the autumn of 1804 a 22-year-old resident of Hamburg named Moses b. Mendel Frankfurt (1782–1861) sought out a recent arrival from Berlin, the ageing and venerable Naphtali Herz Wessely (1725–1805). Approaching his eightieth birthday, Wessely had moved from Berlin to spend what would be the last year of his life in the care of his daughter. The author of more than half a dozen books and countless essays and poems, he was widely recognized as one of the main catalysts of the Haskalah, second in stature only to Moses Mendelssohn. The young Frankfurt came from a family that had long admired both these early Jewish Enlightenment figures, and Wessely's move to Hamburg naturally attracted his attention. Some years later, when Frankfurt had occasion to discuss Wessely in his own writings, he recalled his encounters with the Berlin maskil with warm admiration.
As one might expect, Frankfurt's depiction of Wessely and his contribution to the linguistic and cultural enlightenment of European Jewry was highly appreciative. Writing for a nineteenth-century audience that was only vaguely familiar with the lives and accomplishments of the early Enlightenment figures, he began by sketching Wessely's life in broad strokes: his birth in Hamburg, his moves to Amsterdam and Copenhagen, and, in 1774, his relocation to Berlin. He highlighted Wessely's literary and scholarly contribution, stressing his talents in the fields of poetry and Hebrew language, and noting how his writings differed—qualitatively as well as substantively—from those of Mendelssohn. The most noteworthy aspect of this presentation, however, was the fact that it managed to avoid the uncritical and gauzy hagiography of many contemporary writings about the early maskilim. Frankfurt's biographical essay, in fact, was striking in its depiction of Wessely as an isolated and misunderstood figure with few friends or supporters, increasingly ignored by the members of the Jewish community in Berlin. In Frankfurt's account, the unfortunate situation appeared to have been precipitated in part by Wessely's castigation of his fellow Jews for their sinful deprivations and petty jealousies, which only managed to gain him their enmity.
Tail biting is a widespread adverse behaviour that occurs in growing pigs but, as of yet, no one knows what initially encourages the development of this behavioural problem. It has been suggested that tail biting is linked to a behavioural predisposition, exacerbated by environmental inadequacy, or a nutritional deficiency such as inadequate protein or minerals. Using a model tail test, Fraser (1987, 1991) demonstrated an experimental link between mineral or protein dietary deficiencies and an increased attraction to blood. Using this test, Fraser demonstrated that large individual variation exists between pigs in the extent of their attraction to blood. The current experiment extended this tail test to investigate the nature of the attraction to blood, and to examine factors that may be related to tail biting predisposition.
Harmful social behaviour is behaviour that is directed at pen mates which, if persistent, causes injury. It includes tail, ear and flank biting. The aim of this work was to determine if pigs that are predisposed to harmful social behaviour can be identified early in life using a test. In this experiment a test that measured the chewing behaviour of pigs on an artificial tail was developed from Fraser (1987), as one of a wider battery of tests under investigation in the overall project. The validity of the test was evaluated by correlating the rope directed behaviour in the test with harmful social behaviour in the home pen.
Tail-biting is an adverse behaviour which can lead to injury in the recipient pig, reducing welfare and causing abscesses in the carcass. A survey in abattoirs in the UK found that 5 percent of pigs at slaughter have their tails bitten (Guise & Penny, 1998). Work by Fraser (1987) suggested that tail-biting is linked to a deficiency in dietary minerals. This study investigated whether finishing pigs were more attracted to salt after being offered a diet deficient in salt for two weeks.
Sometime in the early summer of 1782, Moses Mendelssohn received word that a pamphlet, entitled Das Forschen nach Licht und Recht (The Searching for Light and Right) and signed only as “S***,” was being prepared for publication. Enunciating the concerns of an Enlightenment-minded Christian writer, this pamphlet explicitly challenged Mendelssohn to clarify two issues of public interest: his increasingly outspoken advocacy for the civil admission of Jews into Prussian society, and the future shape of Judaism within a modern tolerant state. For Mendelssohn, the impending publication of the pamphlet was disconcerting because it insisted on linking his personal religious integrity to the broader political debate over civil integration. Given that his political campaign on behalf of his coreligionists was predicated upon the removal of confessional considerations from the public realm, this particular linkage became a source of no small irritation. Mendelssohn, however, quickly determined that the challenge could not be left unanswered. Indeed, it was in response to this tract and its appended postscript that Mendelssohn penned Jerusalem, his most articulate and enduring statement on religious tolerance and political equality.
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