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Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) is an umbrella term for all drug and nondrug addictive behaviors, due to a dopamine deficiency, “hypodopaminergia.” There is an opioid-overdose epidemic in the USA, which may result in or worsen RDS. A paradigm shift is needed to combat a system that is not working. This shift involves the recognition of dopamine homeostasis as the ultimate treatment of RDS via precision, genetically guided KB220 variants, called Precision Behavioral Management (PBM). Recognition of RDS as an endophenotype and an umbrella term in the future DSM 6, following the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), would assist in shifting this paradigm.
To describe the procedures used during an influenza immunization program and the use of a randomized survey to quantify the vaccination rate among healthcare workers with and without patient contact.
Influenza immunization vaccination program and a randomized survey.
Johns Hopkins University and Health System.
The 2008/2009 Johns Hopkins Influenza Immunization Program was administered to 40,000 employees, including 10,763 healthcare workers. A 10% randomized sample (1,084) of individuals were interviewed to evaluate the vaccination rate among healthcare workers with direct patient contact.
Between September 23, 2008, and April 30, 2009, a total of 16,079 vaccinations were administered. Ninety-four percent (94.5%) of persons who were vaccinated received the vaccine in the first 7 weeks of the campaign. The randomized survey demonstrated an overall vaccination rate of 71.3% (95% confidence interval, 68.6%-74.0%) and a vaccination rate for employees with direct patient contact of 82.8% (95% confidence interval, 80.1%-85.5%). The main reason (25.3%) for declining the program vaccine was because the employee had received documented vaccination elsewhere.
The methods used to increase participation in the recent immunization program were successful, and a randomized survey to assess participation was found to be an efficient means of evaluating the workforce's level of potential immunity to the influenza virus.
The Supernova Working Group was re-established at the IAU XXV General Assembly in Sydney, 21 July 2003, sponsored by Commissions 28 (Galaxies) and 47 (Cosmology). Here we report on some of its activities since 2005.
INTRODUCTION: BUDGET DEFICITS, POLITICS, AND BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS
Budget deficits arise in part because voters support the policies that lead to them. This is so despite the fact that many voters want to avoid deficits. They favor policies that undercut their own goals, and politicians – who often have the same preferences as those who elect them – respond. Politicians (and economists) still differ on the appropriate size of the budget. When those who favor smaller government gain power, they sometimes adopt a strategy of “starving the beast,” which involves cutting taxes today with the expectation that spending cuts will follow tomorrow. The assumption is that tax cuts are easier to swallow than spending cuts, but then aversion to deficits will kick in and permit spending cuts as well.
We present experimental evidence that many people actually do not desire tax cuts without spending cuts. Although people choose to reduce a deficit with spending cuts when they are asked in the abstract what to do, the budget cuts are not so palatable when people are asked about cuts in particular categories. When people are forced by a question to balance the budget, they still show this aversion to specific spending cuts, although they are willing to cut specific spending somewhat to close a deficit. Dedicated taxes also may help people accept both taxes and spending when these are warranted.
Budget deficits, the subject of this volume, almost invariably have a psychological dimension. This occurs because of the confluences of two realities.
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