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Anomalous origin of a branch pulmonary artery from the aorta is a rare malformation, accounting for 0.12% of all congenital heart defects. We present the case of a 43-year-old man with an anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery (AORPA) from the ascending aorta. Reimplantation of the right pulmonary artery was carried out successfully, with favourable evolution in the medium-term follow-up. It is the first described case that receives corrective treatment in adulthood with a favourable evolution.
The proliferation of disturbance-adapted species in human-modified landscapes may change the structure of plant communities, but the response of biodiversity to human disturbances remains poorly understood. We examine the proliferation of the palm, Syagrus coronata, in disturbed forest stands and its impacts on the structure of vascular epiphyte assemblages in a human-modified landscape of Brazilian Caatinga dry forest. First, we compared S. coronata density between old-growth and regenerating forest stands. We then surveyed vascular epiphytes on 680 phorophytes (S. coronata and non-palm/control species) across five habitat types with different disturbance levels. There was an eight-fold increase in S. coronata density in regenerating areas compared with in old-growth forest. Syagrus coronota supported richer epiphyte assemblages at local (i.e. per palm) and landscape (i.e. pooling all palms) scale than control phorophytes, supporting more than 11 times the number of species of control phorophytes at both scales. Epiphyte assemblages were more abundant, species-rich and dominated by abiotically dispersed species in forest sites with intermediate disturbance levels (regenerating forest stands). More than simply operating as an exclusive phorophyte for more than 90% of the epiphyte species we recorded here, S. coronata favours epiphyte persistence and structures their assemblages across human-modified landscapes of the Caatinga forest.
Coinage metals nanoparticles have been widely used in last decade for enhancing the Raman signal of a variety of compounds. Several preparation methods have been proposed, including chemical reduction of gold or silver salts with sodium citrate, hydroxylamine or sodium borohydride, microwave-assisted reduction with glucose, Tollens mirror, electrodeposition, vacuum evaporation and pulsed-laser deposition.
In this work, gold and silver nanoparticles were prepared by chemical reduction with sodium citrate and hydroxilmanine, characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and High Resolution Transmission Electronic Microscopy and tested as SERS substrate. Carminic acid, cochineal, axiote, muitle and zacatlaxcalli SERS spectra were recorded at different pH. Natural dyes samples were prepared by extraction from its natural sources, following traditional recipes. Although differs for each dye, best results were achieved by performing SERS experiments at pH neutral to basic.