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This Element introduces the notion of curatorial composing to account for certain musical practices that emerged from the 1960s as the founding concepts of music as an art – instituted in the modern era – were systematically dismantled. It raises the key question of how musical value and authority might be produced without recourse to an external principle, origin, transcendental framework, or other foundation. It argues that these practices do not dismiss the issue of value or simply relativise it but shift the paradigm to a curatorial concern for composing public encounters and staging events. The Element shows that Lydia Goehr's elaboration of the work-concept provides a framework that was transformed by John Cage in his work from 0'00” (1962) onwards. The Element then introduces Heiner Goebbels' practice and focus on his role as Artistic Director of the Ruhrtriennale (2012–14), which it argues was an extension of his curatorial composing.
A five-slot hexagonal shape chipless RFID tag is designed, simulated, and manufactured on FR4 substrate. The designed tag's copper geometry was replicated on a wide range of dielectric substrate to quantify the impact on resonance quality factor (RQF) and resonating frequencies. The tag's performance was assessed in three configurations. First, a hexagonal shape tag's radar cross section (RCS) was studied over different dielectric substrates. The various dielectric substrate effects were investigated over the maximum read range, resonant frequencies and RQF. In the second evaluation, the physical geometry of the tag was adjusted to achieve the spectral signatures in 2–7 GHz frequency band with high RQF. In step three, the optimized tag geometry was manufactured on FR4, Roger Duroid 5880, and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates. Denford milling machine for PCB engraving and inkjet printing for silver nanoparticles deposition were used for tags manufacturing. During tag manufacturing, copper and silver were used as conducting materials for RCS backscattering. The tag RCS response was measured by vector network analyzer with bi-static antenna setup. The analysis of different dielectric substrate provides a pathway of designing a novel substrate by using various nanomaterials.
The design of a low-cost, flexible, miniaturized, and a high code density chipless radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag is presented as a solution for tracking the transportation of biomass fuel pellets. The performance of the tag is presented and demonstrates the applicability of the design for different material systems, while maintaining a compact size of 5.06 cm2. The tag consists of nested concentric hexagonal elements and a central spiral resonator suitable for ID encoding. The tag presented demonstrates code density of 3.6-bits/cm2, possesses angular stability up to 60°, and high radar cross section (RCS). The tag performance was also observed for tracking 5 kg of fly-ash biomass. Additionally, as the tag mass mostly consists of FR4, PET, or Taconic TLX-0 with a minute mass of either copper, gold, or silver, the tag can be easily combusted and disposed of during biomass combustion. The novel features of this tag are the combination of hexagonal and spiral shape slots for maximum space utilization thereby achieving high RCS signatures along with high code density. All these properties of the proposed chipless RFID tag provide a pioneering pathway for a real-time biomass tracking application.
Information-seeking research emerges from separate traditions focusing on one-time information-seeking behavior (research on curiosity), and long-term task engagement (research on interest). However, these lines of research have been developed independently, and there has been little discussion as to how they can be understood in an integrative manner. Here we present a general framework (the reward-learning framework of knowledge acquisition) that provides a more comprehensive understanding of information-seeking behavior, effectively linking these two research traditions. This framework is based on existing reward-learning models that account for one-time information-seeking behavior, but extends them to explain its long-term development by incorporating the key role of knowledge accumulation.
Background: Basilar artery stenting is a rescue therapy in the management of hyperacute stroke Published data on efficacy and safety are limited. Methods: A systematic review of published studies was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Inclusion criteria were adult patients with ischemic stroke with permanent basilar artery stent placement within 48 hours of onset. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers. Additional cases from our institution were identified via a local stroke registry. Results: Of 212 screened articles, patient-level data was reported in 35 studies (93 individuals) and six additional patients were included from our registry. Patients (n=99, 63% male; median age 64) most often presented with mid-basilar occlusion (52%) and 76% received treatment within 12 hours of onset. Favorable angiographic results occurred in 67%. The final modified Rankin Scale score (mRS) was 0-3 for 56% of patients; mortality was 29%. Those with complete flow post-procedure were more likely to have a final mRS of 0-3 (p=0.05). Conclusions: In 99 cases of basilar stenting in hyperacute stroke, favourable angiographic and functional outcomes were reported in 67% and 56% of patients, respectively. International multicenter registries are required to establish benefit and identify patient and technical factors that predict favorable outcomes.
Editor's note: If you have been reading the book from the beginning, this chapter is a bit of an intermission. It is less about doing, and more about reflecting on, your taxonomy project. Once you have finished developing a taxonomy, it might be tempting to put your feet up and let the taxonomy's users and systems take over. But do not do that until you have read this chapter. Here, Ed shares some of the knottiest problems and misunderstandings that can arise from how the taxonomy is built and how it is being implemented. You may not need this chapter today, but one day you may find yourself thanking it for saving you a world of pain.
Whether at conferences or during sales pitches, we hear a lot about the benefits of taxonomy implementation and its untroubled project process. But what if you are not working for a company with a large budget, engaged workforce and mature digital ecosystem? Most taxonomy projects will struggle and face numerous hurdles to successfully complete, let alone succeed. Your real-world scenario may look something like this …
Your company has decided to take the leap and invest in a new taxonomy and you have been selected to be the new Taxonomy/Metadata/Search/Knowledge Manager. Maybe you’ve been doing this for years or maybe your job has absolutely nothing to do with metadata; you just happened to be born unlucky and draw the short straw. How are you going to make this a success? Or, more importantly, how are you going to make sure as little as possible goes wrong?
Hopefully, you’re knee-deep in documentation from the business and consultants (otherwise you are going to have to get busy creating it) detailing the taxonomy, the software, the integrations and the vital importance and cruciality of your mission to the digital transformation of the business. But if I were a betting man, I’d say you’re working with nothing.
So, where to start?
A good place to start is to think about:
1 The taxonomy itself. Is it fit for purpose?
2 Where the taxonomy exists. The taxonomy won't live in isolation. It will be hosted in software, which is likely part of a larger digital ecosystem.
3 Who is going to use it? Let's not forget your users. Both customers and staff/cataloguers, who have to use your taxonomy and software, or … the dreaded C-suite/senior leadership team.
Deterioration in general population mental health since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic has been reported, but the impact of the pandemic on people with severe mental illness (SMI) has received less attention.
To understand the impact of the early stages of the pandemic on the patients with SMI, in terms of provision of mental health care and patient outcomes.
We examined records of 34,446 patients with SMI in Oxford Health Foundation Trust between March 2016 and July 2020. We used interrupted time-series analysis to estimate the immediate and subsequent changes in weekly rates of the use of community mental health services, hospitalization, and patient outcomes (as measured by Health of the Nation Outcome Scales, or HoNOS, scores) during the weeks of lockdown between March 23, 2020 and July 3, 2020.
Mean total HoNOS scores for all patients deteriorated in the weeks subsequent to lockdown (0.060 per week; 95%CI: 0.033, 0.087). Scores for patients with a history of psychosis deteriorated immediately (0.63; 95% CI: 0.26, 1.0). There was an immediate decrease in weekly referrals to community and outpatient services (−196; 95%CI: −300, −91) and no immediate change in weekly inpatient admissions (−4.2; 95%CI: −9.9, 1.5) or weekly total contacts (−26; 95%CI: −475, 423).
Patients with SMI were negatively impacted during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients with a history of psychosis experienced distinct and immediate impacts. During the same period, referrals to community and outpatient services fell with no consequent impact on inpatient admissions.
This paper draws on historical institutionalism to consider the impact of housing-policy responses following the Grenfell fire on the marginalisation of the social-housing resident. We consider three specific policy responses: reform focused on conditions of rented properties; the social-housing White Paper; and building regulation and building-safety reforms. We suggest that, in historical institutionalist terms, each is part of a matrix of reform in which understandings of the social-housing resident play a critical role. We argue that rather than the fire provoking a paradigm shift in the recognition that government accords to the ignored and stigmatised citizens who live in social housing, the policy initiatives to date indicate a much more limited adjustment of policy within a normal frame. We suggest that this is because housing policy is dominated by a consumerist ideology that is self-reinforcing and ignores the social, economic and political complexity of tenure.
Veterinary healthcare workers are in close contact with many different animals and might be at an increased risk of acquiring Clostridioides difficile. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the prevalence and risk factors of C. difficile carriage in Dutch veterinary healthcare workers. Participants provided a faecal sample and filled out a questionnaire covering potential risk factors for C. difficile carriage. C. difficile culture positive isolates were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotyped and the presence of toxin genes tcdA, tcdB and cdtA/cdtB was determined. Eleven of 482 [2.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–4.0] veterinary healthcare workers were carriers of C. difficile. Three persons carried C. difficile ribotype 078 (0.6%; 95% CI 0.2–1.8). Risk factors for carriage were health/medication and hygiene related, including poor hand hygiene after patient (animal) contact, and did not include occupational contact with certain animal species. In conclusion, the prevalence of C. difficile carriage in veterinary healthcare workers was low and no indications were found that working in veterinary care is a risk for C. difficile carriage.
This paper outlines frameworks to use for reserving validation and gives the reader an overview of current techniques being employed. In the experience of the authors, many companies lack an embedded reserve validation framework and reserve validation can appear piecemeal and unstructured. The paper outlines a case study demonstrating how successful machine learning techniques will become and then goes on to discuss the implications of machine learning to the future of reserving departments, processes, data and validation techniques. Reserving validation can take many forms, from simple checks to full independent reviews to add value to the reserving process, enhance governance and increase confidence in and reliability in results. This paper discusses covers common weaknesses and their solutions and suggestions of a framework in which to apply validation tools. The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on reserving validation is also covered as are early warning indicators and the topic of IFRS 17 from the standpoint of reserving validation. The paper looks at the future for reserving validation and discusses the data challenges that need overcoming on the path to embedded reserving process validation.
Much has changed since CompuServe introduced its “Electronic Mall” as the first major retail e-commerce platform in 1984. Digital technologies have driven down costs and improved access and opportunities for producers and consumers, manufacturers and farmers, and above all, users. Digital technologies have transformed how a large part of the global economy operates. A broad range of goods are now digital and thereby intangible, being made up of bytes. Likewise, many services that previously required costly face-to-face contact between the firm and consumer are now available remotely.
Technology has opened international trade – in the form of e-commerce – to a broad range of firms and sectors that beforehand would have been the sole domain of larger multinational companies. Most importantly, technology and the Internet reduced the transaction costs and information asymmetries associated with international trade. Social networks like Facebook and Twitter and search engines like Google and Bing give large and small businesses alike easy ways to advertise services to people around the world.
Often health technology assessment (HTA) products developed by the Scottish Health Technologies Group (SHTG) did not reach clear directive conclusions because the evidence base for a technology was weak. Despite being methodologically robust, these products did not meet the needs of decision-makers and may have had negligible impact.
SHTG set out to equip and empower the recommendation-making council (that is, appraisal committee) to reach clear conclusions. SHTG broadened the HTA components and types of evidence that could be considered. The increased breadth of evidence included: clinicians attending council meetings to respond to questions; patient groups making submissions and presenting at council meetings; Scotland-specific economic modelling; and consultation on draft recommendations. SHTG also restructured the council for improved deliberative decision-making.
Clear directive conclusions were reached in a substantially higher proportion of HTA products (eighty-eight percent in 2019 compared with eight percent in 2017). It became possible for decision-makers to implement findings. It also became feasible to assess the impact and implementation of recommendations.
Broadening SHTG's consideration of HTA components has led to a clearer conclusion being reached and stronger messaging for decision makers. This positions SHTG to increase its influence in the use of health technologies in Scotland.
This chapter begins with an exploration of the epidemiology of illicit drug use. Measuring the use of illicit drugs accurately can be challenging, and the initial focus is on the various potential sources of data in the UK. Methods for estimating the prevalence of opiate and crack cocaine use are discussed, and the prevalence and trends in both specialist addiction and mental health services are reviewed. The aetiology of drug use and dependence is then explored using a framework of risk and protective factors. The brain disease model of addiction is described alongside challenges to its validity, with a consideration of why some people get addicted and others do not. Psychological models of addiction are reviewed and integrated into a wider biopsychosocial model. Finally, protective factors against drug use in adolescence are considered, and the evidence for prevention strategies summarised.
This chapter traces the evolution of the term ‘addiction’ over time, demonstrating how its meaning has altered in the face of social and political changes in society. The second half explores the story behind the diagnostic terminology used in clinical practice today, and describes the recent changes to the addiction section of the major classificatory systems. Addiction is conceptualised as a disorder involving a loss of the normal flexibility of human behaviour, leaving a dehumanised state of compulsive behaviour (‘overwhelming involvement’). It has acquired a variety of terminology over time, much of it inferring moral weakness. Addiction may be associated with psychoactive substances or other pleasurable behaviours and occurs on a spectrum of use and harms, which vary in severity. The term ‘dependence’ may refer to physiological aspects of addiction (tolerance or withdrawal), but is also used to define the severe end of the spectrum. Confusion around this terminology has led to it being removed from the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5).