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No basis for controversy exists in the naming of a global, strongly negative, uppermost Cambrian carbon isotope (δ13C) excursion. The HERB Event (HERB) has met the standards for chemostratigraphic units (i.e. consistent biostratigraphic brackets, content and concept) since 1992. By comparison, the TOCE excursion morphed through four temporally distinct δ13C events with spike-like nadirs that shifted temporally through the uppermost Cambrian until its synonymization with HERB (2006–12). In 2018, TOCE became a prolonged interval with very early onset and enveloped HERB – meaning five TOCE homonyms have been unambiguously defined and figured. HERB lies in the high-diversity ptychaspid biomere (trilobites) and below the ptychaspid extinction. But, data on it were used in TOCE’s 2006 proposal and in later iterations (2008, 2012) to show it (1) higher, both at and above the ptychaspid extinction; (2) at the level of HERB (2012, 2018); and (3) even extending well below HERB (2018). TOCE fails the recommendations for a formal chemostratigraphic unit. Its relationship to latest Cambrian biotic turnover includes equation with extinction and high-diversity intervals. One TOCE homonym is a synonym, albeit junior, of HERB.
Chemostratigraphic units require consistent definitions and unambiguous names. So-called TOCE (Top of Cambrian Excursion) is used as an uppermost Cambrian δ13Ccarb negative excursion although it was proposed without documentation, is ambiguously defined, and variably correlated into four Laurentian trilobite zones. TOCE, a nihilartikel, is regularly substituted to the exclusion of the earlier named, precisely documented and geochronologically older HERB (Hellnmaria-Red Tops Boundary) Event. HERB allows late Cambrian global correlation; its onset is close to the lowest occurrence of the conodont Eoconodontus notchpeakensis at the base of a proposed replacement (Lawsonian Stage) of Cambrian Stage 10. TOCE must be retired from use and abandoned as a synonym of the HERB Event.
New U–Pb radioisotopic ages on early Cambrian volcanic zircons condition a high-resolution Bayesian age model that constrains the first occurrences and zonations of West Gondwanan archaeocyaths and trilobites in southern Morocco. The oldest archaeocyaths in the Tiout Member of the Igoudine Formation (519.71 + 0.26/− 0.35 Ma) are c. 6 Ma younger than the oldest Siberian archaeocyaths. The oldest Moroccan trilobite fragments, from the lower member of the Igoudine, are constrained to 519.95 + 0.43/− 0.40 Ma. The succeeding Issendalenian Stage (i.e. Hupetina antique – Eofallotaspis tioutensis – Fallotaspis plana – Choubertella – Daguinaspis trilobite zones) spans c. 1.5 Ma (519.78 + 0.26/− 0.37 Ma to 518.43 + 0.25/− 0.69 Ma). Identifiable Moroccan fallotaspidids and bigotinids, among Earth’s oldest trilobites, occur above a positive δ13C excursion dated with our age model at 520.27 + 0.59/− 0.57 Ma, and correlated with the IV excursion peak within the lower range of Siberian Atdabanian Stage trilobites (Repinaella Zone). This excursion is the best standard for a Cambrian Series 2 base. The oldest West Gondwana trilobite fragments are c. 1 Ma younger than those in Siberia and c. 0.5 Ma older than the oldest Avalonian trilobites (Callavia Zone). This diachrony means a trilobite first appearance datum is an inappropriate chronostratigraphic base for Cambrian Series 2. Taxonomic differences in the oldest trilobites between Cambrian palaeocontinents are in accordance with trace fossil evidence for the group’s appearance possibly as late as c. 530 Ma in the Cambrian Evolutionary Radiation. Coeval 519–517 Ma dates from Avalonia (cool-water siliciclastic shelf) and West Gondwana (tropical carbonate platform) sections with distinct macrofaunas emphasize these successions were latitudinally separate by the late Ediacaran Period.
Álvaro et al. (2018) argued that at least six species of Acadoparadoxides described from the lower–middle Cambrian boundary interval successions in the Anti-Atlas of Morocco all belong to Acadoparadoxides mureroensis (Sdzuy, 1958), which was first described from the Iberian Chains, Spain. Their study is based entirely on a morphometric analysis, which ignores the stratigraphic occurrences of particular morphotypes, deformation-related compaction of individual sclerites and their original relief, and thus underestimates some of the earlier described differences between these species. Their synonymization of a number of named Acadoparadoxides species is based on the morphometric approach that they rely on to distinguish between a number of congeneric species. A morphometric approach as applied by Álvaro et al. will lead to an apparent synonymy based on sclerites of similar taxa. Thus, morphometric study must be complemented by an analysis of which morphologically distinctive sclerites (i.e. cranidia and pygidia) are stratigraphically associated, and evaluation of which measurements are more critical to distinguishing sclerites that may represent distinct taxa, and the recognition of related character sets. Apart from demonstrating problems in the conclusion of Álvaro et al., our more inclusive approach of morphologic and stratigraphic analysis works to reassert the diagnostic characters and differences between six earlier named species of Acadoparadoxides. Our conclusions also emphasize the taxonomic problems associated with the identification and morphological variation of A. mureroensis owing to tectonic deformation of its topotype material and to questionable taxonomic assignment of Acadoparadoxides specimens from the Iberian sections.
New and archival collections from the Chelsey Drive Group of the Avalon terrane of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada, yield late Cambrian trilobites and agnostoid arthropods with full convexity that contrast with compacted, often deformed material from shale and slate typical of Avalonian Britain. Four species of the agnostoid Lotagnostus form a stratigraphic succession in the upper Furongian (Ctenopyge tumida–Parabolina lobata zones). Two species, L. ponepunctus (Matthew, 1901) and L. germanus (Matthew, 1901) are previously named; L. salteri and L. matthewi are new. Lotagnostus trisectus (Salter, 1864), the type species of the genus, is restricted to compacted material from its type area in Malvern, England. Lotagnostus americanus (Billings, 1860) has been proposed as a globally appropriate index for the base of ‘Stage 10’ of the Cambrian. All four species from Avalonian Canada are differentiated clearly from L. americanus in its type area in Laurentian North America (i.e., from debris flow blocks in Taconian Quebec). In our view, putative occurrences of L. americanus from other Cambrian continents record very different species. Lotagnostus americanus cannot be recognized worldwide, and other taxa should be sought to define the base of Stage 10, such as the conodont Eoconodontus notchhpeakensis.
Lower Ordovician sections in the type Ibexian area of western Utah contain a considerably more diverse trilobite fauna than has previously been reported. Reinvestigation of these faunas, based on new field sampling, allows a reassessment of the dimeropygid genera Ischyrotoma Raymond, 1925, and Dimeropygiella Ross, 1951. These taxa have been considered synonyms, but parsimony analysis indicates each is a well supported clade, and they are best recognized as sister genera. The number of species known from Ibex has been doubled, from four to eight, and morphological information is now available for most parts of the exoskeleton. New species include Ischyrotoma juabensis (Juab Formation), I. wahwahensis (Wah Wah Formation), Dimeropygiella fillmorensis (Fillmore Formation), and D. mccormicki (Fillmore Formation). The previously named species Dimeropygiella caudanodosa, D. blanda, and D. ovata are fully revised on the basis of abundant new material. Pseudohystricurus is a paraphyletic group, with species distributed as a basal grade of the Ischyrotoma/Dimeropygiella group.
Two new species of ostracods, Conchoprimitia cassidula n. sp. and Sorornanopsis avalonensis n. gen. n. sp., represent the first described Middle Ordovician ostracods from western Avalonia. They were recovered as phosphatized carapaces dissolved out of a late early Darriwilian (ca. 467 Ma) limestone boulder from the Triassic Lepreau Formation of New Brunswick, Canada. The ostracods form a low-diversity component of a higher energy, near-shore, shelf marine fauna dominated by the trilobites Neseuretus and Stapleyella and by the conodonts Drepanoistodus and Baltoniodus. The low diversity of this Avalonian ostracod fauna contrasts with more diverse (tens of species), coeval ostracod faunas from Laurentia and Baltica. The association of Darriwilian ostracods and trilobites from New Brunswick demonstrates continuing exchange of open marine, cool water biota between Avalonia, Baltica, and West and North Gondwana that began in the late early Cambrian.
Cambrian–Ordovician boundary interval dendroid graptolites and conodonts occur in continental slope facies in the Taconic allochthon. The upper part of the Hatch Hill Formation has lowest Ordovician (lowest Tremadocian) nematophorous dendroid and lower Fauna B-aspect conodont assemblages with Cordylodus caseyi (emend.) and Iapetognathus preaengensis. Comparable dendroid-conodont faunas occur in Baltoscandia, northeastern China, and western Newfoundland; this suggests that no diachroneity can be demonstrated between the lowest occurrences of Rhabdinopora flabelliformis in a number of faunal provinces.
A practical and correlatable Cambrian–Ordovician boundary stratotype horizon defined by the lowest occurrence of a Rhabdinopora flabelliformis assemblage within an interval with lower Fauna B-aspect conodonts is advocated. A biostratigraphic horizon defined by conodonts has far less utility due to strong lithofacies-conodont biofacies linkages, unresolved problems with the species-level taxonomy of cordylodans, and possible diachronous first-appearances of Cordylodus species. Because the areally most extensive Cambrian–Ordovician boundary sequences are siliciclastic-dominated (Avalonian, Baltoscandian, Gondwanan-Hercynian platforms and shale-dominated slope sequences), the lowest local occurrence of R. flabelliformis assemblages provides a practical and traditional definition for the base of the Ordovician System and Tremadocian Series in regions where conodonts are rare or recoverable only with difficulty.
Strata correlative with the Cambrian–Tremadocian boundary interval are not represented across most of Laurentia. In this region, the “Sauk III Subsequence” locally has an important unconformity within it, and lower Tremadocian-equivalent rocks can unconformably overlie units as low as the Proterozoic. The earliest Ordovician featured a relatively simple eustatic history characterized by an “early Tremadocian onlap”; no compelling evidence supports a eustatic fall-rise couplet, or “Black Mountain eustatic event,” in this interval. Available stratigraphic information is reinterpreted to demonstrate an initially slow and subsequently higher rate of continued sea level rise in the Cambrian–Ordovician boundary interval.
The Lower Ordovician middle Beekmantown Group is a very thin carbonate platform succession on the northern New York Promontory that thickens north into the Ottawa aulacogen near Montréal. The Tribes Hill Formation (Rossodus manitouensis Zone) records the earliest Ordovician (late Skullrockian, late early Tremadocian) eustatic high that submerged Laurentia, and produced the lowest Ordovician sequence along the New York Promontory. These dolostones are succeeded in the Beekmantown, New York, area by late Tulean?–Blackhillsian transgressive systems tract quartz arenites of the lower Fort Cassin Formation (Ward Member). The “Fort Ann Formation” (middle Stairsian, upper Tremadocian) of the southern Lake Champlain lowlands (=Theresa Formation sandstones in the Ottawa graben) is absent at Beekmantown, and moderate Stairsian (late Tremadocian) eustatic rise apparently did not inundate the Beekmantown area after Skullrockian–Stairsian boundary interval offlap. Highstand carbonates of the upper Fort Cassin Formation [Sciota Member = “Spellman Formation” and “Ogdensburg Member” of the “Beauharnois Formation” in the Montréal area; designations abandoned] at Beekmantown yield diverse conodonts seemingly characteristic of the Oepikodus communis–Fahraeusodus marathonensis Zone (new). However, associated trilobites, particularly Carolinites tasmanensis (Etheridge, 1919), show a correlation with the upper Trigonocerca typica (trilobite) Zone of the Utah and the overlying Reutterodus andinus (conodont) Zone. This abrupt early Blackhillsian lithofacies change features the appearance of chitinozoans and conodonts known from marginal successions, and records the Laignet Point highstand (new). This highstand is recognized across Laurentia on the west Newfoundland and southern Midcontinent platforms. It is recorded on the east Laurentian continental slope by lower Oepikodus evae Zone dysoxic black mudstone in the Taconian allochthons. Taxonomic re-evaluations include Ulrichodina Branson and Mehl, 1933, with its genotype species U. abnormalis (Branson and Mehl, 1933) emend., as the senior synonym of Colaptoconus Kennedy, 1994; Eucharodus Kennedy, 1980; and Glyptoconus Kennedy, 1980. Paraserratognathus An in An et al., 1983, emend. is the senior synonym of Wandelia Smith, 1991 and Stultodontus Ji and Barnes, 1994. Tropodus Kennedy, 1980 is the senior synonym of Chionoconus Smith, 1991. The trilobite fauna of the Sciota Member includes species of Isoteloides, Benthamaspis, Acidiphorus and Carolinites, of which I. fisheri is new.
Continental slope facies in eastern New York have the most diverse small shelly faunas known in Laurentian late Early Cambrian strata. Diversity of a lower Elliptocephala asaphoides assemblage, the oldest body fauna in the Taconic allochthon, reflects turbidity current exhumation, transport, and deposition of phosphatized fossil hash in a proximal facies of the Browns Pond Formation. Phosphatization is linked to the first of two Olenellus Chron intervals with a thickened dysaerobic water mass on the slope. This interval of increased rate of sea-level rise corresponds to development of extensive carbonate belts and onlap of dark shales (e.g., Forteau and lower Kinzers formations) on the east Laurentian shelf.
The assemblage includes two trilobites, archaeocyathan fragments, echinoderm debris, the first edrioasteriod from east Laurentia, and 26 small shelly fossil species. New taxa are Asperconella new genus and Stenotheca taconica new species (helcionellids); Mackinnonia obliqua new species (pararostroconch); Conotheca laurentiensis new species, Insolitotheca new genus, and Petasotheca minuta new genus and species (hyoliths); and Plinthokonion? psamminon new species (agglutinated problematicum).
The uppermost Precambrian(?)–Lower Cambrian of the Avalon Zone in the northern Antigonish Highlands is composed of two dissimilar sequences in thrust contact. These include the sandstones and slates of the Doctor's Brook allochthon and the volcanoclastic-rich Malignant Cove authochthon.
Lithostratigraphy of the “Black John Formation” (designation abandoned) in the Doctor's Brook allochthon is comparable to the uppermost Precambrian–Lower Cambrian in eastern Placentia Bay, southeastern Newfoundland, and Cape Breton Island. A unified stratigraphic nomenclature is appropriate in these Avalonian areas. The lower part of the “Black John” is an unconformity-bounded depositional sequence with subaerial rift facies (Rencontre Formation, 178+ m), overlying marine siliciclastic mudstones and fine sandstones (Chapel Island Formation, 59 m), and a quartzite cap (Random Formation, 2.05 m). The Chapel Island Formation has the oldest faunas from mainland Nova Scotia (Watsonella crosbyi Zone, lower Placentian Series). A post-Random unconformity known in Newfoundland and Cape Breton Island lies at the Random-Bonavista Group (Cuslett Formation) contact in the upper “Black John Formation.”
Fossiliferous Lower Cambrian limestones and siliciclastic mudstones previously reported from the Malignant Cove autochthon are actually clasts in basalt pebble-dominated slope deposits of the Arbuckle Brook Formation. These clasts were eroded from shallow-marine facies comparable to those in the Doctor's Brook allochthon during local uplift associated with Middle Cambrian(?) extension and mafic volcanism.
Eight species are illustrated from the Placentian and Branchian Series. Anabaritellus Missarzhevsky, 1974, emend. (=Selindeochrea Valkov, 1982) is a Lower Cambrian calcareous tube-dwelling metazoan(?) known from tri- through multisulcate conchs that are morphologically intermediate between Anabarites and Coleoloides.
Latest Precambrian through Early Cambrian tectonic history and stratigraphy are comparable in southeastern Cape Breton Island and the western Placentia–Bonavista axis, southeastern Newfoundland. The lithostratigraphic nomenclature of southeastern Newfoundland is used for this interval in Cape Breton Island. Upper Precambrian volcanic rocks of the Forchu Group (=“Giant Lake Complex,’ designation abandoned) are unconformably overlain by uppermost Precambrian through lowest Cambrian strata termed the “Morrison River Formation’ (designation abandoned). This depositional sequence consists of three formations: 1) red beds through tidalites of the Rencontre Formation (to 279+ m; =“Kelvin Lake Formation,’ designation abandoned); 2) prodeltaic clastics of the Chapel Island Formation (to 260 m); and 3) macrotidal quartzites of the Random Formation (to 71 + m). Post-Random block faulting and 300 m of local erosion took place prior to onlap of the “MacCodrum Formation’ (abandoned). Siliciclastic mudstones of the lower “MacCodrum’ are re-assigned to the middle Lower Cambrian Bonavista Group. Sub-trilobitic faunas from the Bonavista Group include “Ladatheca’ cylindrica from the West Centre Cove Formation(?) and higher diversity faunas (23 species) in the Camenella baltica Zone of the Cuslett and Fosters Point Formations. Trilobite-bearing, upper Lower Cambrian (Branchian Series) strata (Brigus Formation, =upper “MacCodrum’ and overlying “Canoe Brook’ Formations) unconformably overlie the Placentian Series in Cape Breton Island, southeastern Newfoundland, Shropshire, and, probably, eastern Massachusetts. Correlations based on small shelly fossils indicate an earlier appearance of trilobites in Avalon than on the South China Platform. Twenty-six species are illustrated. Halkieria fordi n. sp., the conodont(?) “Rushtonites’ asiatica n. sp., and the zhijinitid(?) Samsanoffoclavus matthewi n. gen. and sp. are described. Ischyrinia? sp. may be the oldest ischyrinoid rostroconch.
Cambrian Cephalopods are presently reported only from tropical, carbonate platform successions that occur on a number of paleocontinents. Outside of West Gondwanan occurrences on the eastern Sino-Korean Platform in China, the record of Cambrian cephalopods is limited, and information on the early evolution and habitats of this molluscan class has grown slowly over the last century.
“Ladatheca” cylindrica (Grabau, 1900) was a eurytopic metazoan with a calcareous operculum and an elongate, gently tapering conch up to 15+ cm long and with an apical angle of approximately 0.75–2.0°. This apparent polychaete was geographically widespread in the sub-trilobitic Lower Cambrian of middle latitude, siliciclastic (middle and upper Placentian Series, Avalon Zone) and low latitude, carbonate platform (Tommotian Stage, Siberia(?) and Kazakhstan; and, probably, the upper Meishucunian Stage, southwestern China) sequences.
In situ conchs (vertically to steeply inclined, apex down) of “Ladatheca” cylindrica are common in deep subtidal, siliciclastic mudstones (Chapel Island Formation) and in a peritidal algal mud mound(?) limestone (West Centre Cove Formation) in southeastern Newfoundland. Closely juxtaposed conchs locally form a worm reef at the top of the West Centre Cove Formation. This structure is older than the oldest archaeocyathan build-ups and is the earliest known metazoan-constructed biostrome. “Ladatheca” cylindrica was a dominant element of the sessile benthos prior to its apparent ecological displacement by Coleoloides typicalis Walcott, 1889, in the upper Placentian Series.
Lithostratigraphy and depositional and epeirogenic history of the upper Placentian Series (Cuslett-Fosters Point Formations of the Bonavista Group) and Branchian Series (Brigus Formation) are identical in the northern Antigonish Highlands; Cape Breton Island; and eastern Placentia Bay, southeastern Newfoundland. Preliminary evidence suggests that the lower Middle Cambrian is present in the field area. A unified, uppermost Precambrian–Lower Cambrian, formation- and member-level nomenclature is appropriate to Avalonian North America, and the stratigraphic nomenclature of southeastern Newfoundland is applied in northern mainland Nova Scotia.
Latest Placentian shoaling and deposition of a peritidal carbonate lithosome and unconformable onlap of the trilobite-bearing Branchian Series occurred in shallow Avalonian shale basins from eastern Massachusetts to central England.
Uppermost Placentian Series faunas are very diverse in the Fosters Point Formation. Limited similarities with the South Australian Lower Cambrian are indicated by the presence of Camenella sp. cf. C. reticulosa, Conotheca australiensis, and Hyptiotheca sp., but these forms do not contribute to highly resolved correlation.
Twenty-eight taxa are illustrated from the upper Placentian and Branchian Series. Caveacus rectus n. gen. and sp., a phosphatic problematicum, is limited to the upper Placentian Series. The oldest, skeletalized, macrophagous predators are the Pseudoconodontida and the later appearing Protoconodontida (n. orders). The Pseudoconodontida includes the Protohertzinacea n. superfamily and Strictocorniculacea n. superfamily (with the Rhombocorniculidae and Strictocorniculidae n. families). Strictocorniculum vanallerum n. gen. and sp. is described. The tommotiid family Sunnaginiidae emend. includes Eccentrotheca, Sunnaginia, Kulparina, and Jayceia deltiformis n. gen. and sp.
Specimens of the discoid, chambered megafossil Kullingia delicata (Fedonkin) occur near the base of member 2 of the Chapel Island Formation on the Burin Peninsula of Newfoundland. Morphologic and taphonomic features suggest that these fossils can be interpreted as the impressions of pelagic chondrophorines. Kullingia provides a link between Ediacaran and Paleozoic forms, and thus supports the view that the Chondrophorina represents a conservative evolutionary lineage extending back into the Precambrian.
The Hanford Brook Formation, one of the classic Cambrian units of Avalonian North America, contains at least eight species of endemic trilobites, including Berabichia milleri Westrop n. sp., that are assigned to seven genera. The vertical succession of faunas is far more complex than has been recognized previously, with each member containing a lithofacies-specific assemblage. These are, in ascending order: a bradoriid-linguloid Association without trilobites in the nearshore St. Martin's Member, a Protolenus Association in dysaerobic siltstones and sandstones of the Somerset Street Member, and a Kingaspidoides-Berabichia Association in hummocky cross-stratified sandstones of the Long Island Member that overlie a parasequence boundary at Hanford Brook. Due to the breakdown of biogeographic barriers in the late Early Cambrian, two new species-based zones, the Protolenus elegans and Kingaspidoides cf. obliquoculatus zones, share trilobite genera with the Tissafinian Stage of Morocco. This generic similarity has been the basis for correlation of this upper Lower Cambrian interval on the Avalon continent with the West Gondwanan lowest Middle Cambrian. However, the clear facies control on the occurrence of genera in the Hanford Brook Formation and the presence of an abrupt faunal break and unconformity at the base of the Tissafinian in Morocco makes this correlation questionable. The Hanford Brook Formation may represent a late Early Cambrian interval unknown in Gondwana. Sequence-stratigraphic criteria even raise the possibility that the Protolenus Association is the biofacies equivalent of Callavia broeggeri Zone faunas of the Brigus Formation of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and Massachusetts.
Although Middle Cambrian trilobites of the Braintree Member in eastern Massachusetts were among the first published on in North America, re-examination of this fauna has led to wholesale taxonomic and biostratigraphic re-evaluation. This low diversity fauna now includes at least seven species, with the first report of agnostoids (three poorly preserved taxa) and the ellipsocephalid Kingaspis avalonensis new species. Paradoxides (Acadoparadoxides) harlani Green emend., a senior synonym of P. (A.) haywardi Raymond, allows correlation into the lowest Middle Cambrian elsewhere in Avalon. However, all the polymeroid species are endemic, and this precludes a highly resolved correlation into other Cambrian paleocontinents. A breakdown of provincial barriers in the late Early Cambrian as western Gondwana passed from equatorial to the higher south latitudes of Avalon led to faunal exchanges between these continents. Paradoxides (Acadoparadoxides) and Kingaspis of the Braintree fauna are shared with western Gondwana, while Braintreella and “Agraulos” quadrangularis are closest to genera known from the Spanish, Moroccan, and Perunican (Bohemian) margins of Gondwana.
The Cambrian–Ordovician boundary is a type 1 depositional sequence boundary with dramatic local erosional incision in restricted marine facies on the easternmost New York Promontory. The systemic boundary is bracketed below by Late Cambrian, upper Cordylodus proavus Zone (s.s). conodonts from carbonates of the upper Little Falls Formation (=Whitehall Formation, abandoned). Presumed Lower Ordovician ellesmeraceratoid cephalopods from the upper Little Falls are uppermost Cambrian and among the oldest known in North America. The overlying deepening–shoaling cycle of the Tribes Hill Formation (=Cutting and Great Meadows Formations, abandoned) is the local expression of a lowermost Ordovician (Rossodus manitouensis Zone) depositional sequence recognizable across Laurentia. Complete replacement of conodonts takes place in the late Tremadocian or Tremadocian–Arenigian boundary interval with onlap of the “Fort Ann Formation” across the paleokarst cap of the Tribes Hill. The trilobites Hystricurus sp. and Symphysurina myopia Westrop new species occur in less restricted, thrombolitic facies of the middle Tribes Hill that have the highest conodont diversity. Ulrichodina Furnish, 1938, emend. is regarded as the senior synonym of the conodont Colaptoconus Kennedy, 1994 (=Glyptoconus Kennedy, 1980).