To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) is a safe and effective technique widely used in our area. Scientific literature related to the application of this technique is continuously developing, specifically with regard to the placement of the electrodes, the amplitude of the stimulus pulse administered, the initial charge used, and the anesthetic agent involved.
The primary aim of this study was to analyze technical variables associated with the use of ECT in our hospital, and compare them to the guidelines of the protocol developed in our hospital and international standards.
We performed a review of Clinical Histories of the patients that were treated with ECT in the “Hospital 12 de Octubre” (Madrid, Spain), in the period comprised between January 1st, 2008 and December 31st, 2009. We collected data related to the application of the technique, socio-demographic variables and clinical profiles. We used descriptive statistics to analyze our data.
During this period, 602 ECT sessions were applied. Placement of the electrodes was unilateral in 58% of subjects with Affective Disorders and 8% of subjects with Schizophrenia. The amplitude of the stimulus pulse was 1 ms. Mean charge administered in the initial and final session was 236.85 mC and 357.16 mC, respectively. Etomidate was used as anesthetic in 68% of cases.
ECT technical variables applied in our hospital are adjusted to guidelines of our area and international recommendations. Longitudinal studies are warranted in order to objectively assess techinical variables associated to ECT.
Pathological gambling is often considered a behavioral addiction. Attentional bias (AB) refers to the observation that substance-related cues tend to grab the attention of experienced substance users. The Dot Probe Task has been used to assess AB in individuals with substance addiction, however it has never been used to assess AB in PG.
The aims of the present study are assessing potential AB in PG using Dot Probe Task with exposures time that assess attentional maintenance checking the possible correlation of PG severity with degree of attentional bias.
PG sample was 23 subjects and Non Gamblers group (NG) was 21 subjects. To asses the severity of gambling we use the South Oaks Gambling Screen. We can define two types of reaction times to assess the AB: a) Congruence time: time the subject takes to detect the point when it appears on the hemi-screen replacing the cue picture. b) Non-congruence time: idem when replacing the neutral picture. The difference between these times is the AB index.
The PG had a congruence time significantly lower than the non-congruence time which indicates the presence of AB in this group. There were also differences between AB index in PG and NG sample, validating the Dot Probe task to detect AB. Moreover, there weren’t relation between the severity of the game and AB.
The study shows the presence of AB in PG at level of maintenance of attention (disengagement) and the validity of Dot Probe Task to detect AB in PG.
ECT has demonstrated to be an effective and safe biological treatment that can be considered as an alternative to pharmacotherapy, especially for treating severe, resistant and recurrent, affective, psychotic and catatonic symptoms. CECT refers to the one that is started after acute treatment and lasts for a maximum period of 6 months with the objective of preventing relapse. M-ECT is the one that is started once C-ECT has ended with the aim of preventing recurrences. The aim of this study was to explore the evidence for using C-ECT and M-ECT as an alternative to pharmacotherapy.
We performed a search in MEDLINE, PubMed and Cochrane, from 1950 until the present to identify articles in which C-ECT and M-ECT were used as alternative treatments to pharmacotherapy.
C-ECT and M-ECT have demonstrated to be an effective and safe alternative to pharmacotherapy in Unipolar Depression, Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia, especially in the prevention of relapse and recurrences. It reduces number and days of hospitalization. In combination with pharmacotherapy, it increases effectiveness of pharmacological treatment. It does not affect cognitive functioning.
C-ECT and M-ECT should be considered as an alternative to pharmacotherapy in the treatment of affective and psychotic, severe, resistant and recurrent symptoms. It is an effective and safe treatment, which prevents relapse and recurrences in severe mental illness, reducing hospitalization rates and health costs.
Pathological Gambling (PG) tends to be a heterogeneous disorder where patients differ with type and severity of gambling behaviour, psychiatric co-morbidity, family history, sex and age of onset. Age of disease onset in PG varies significantly, with many individuals having onset during childhood and adolescence and others in various stages of adulthood. Previous studies have demonstrated that age of onset is an important characteristic for a better understanding of the PG heterogeneity.
(1) To analyze differences in sociodemographic aspects between early-onset PG and non early-onset PG, (2) to study whether early-onset PG is associated with specific psychiatric diagnosis in axis I and II.
We used data from a large and nationally representative community sample of United States (US) adults, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). We selected age 25 years as a threshold for early-onset PG.
Individuals with early-onset PG were more likely to be male, never married, and young and to have a lower education level and individual income than non early-onset PGs. Early-onset PG were less likely to have mood disorder (OR = 0.42 (0.19 − 0.94)) and had non-significant higher odds of having substance and anxiety disorders than non early-onset. The odds of having Cluster B disorder were significantly higher among early-onset PGs than non early-onset PGs (OR = 4.11 (1,77 − 9.55)).
Our findings support that subgroups of Pathological Gambling defined by onset age have phenotypic differences.
Several studies have stated the possitive effects of physical exercise over mental health, mainly in clinical samples. However, the results of these experimental estudies might not be generalized to general population. Some authors propose that physical activity could be not really promoting a psychological benefit but, instead, be a consequence of some personal or circumstantial features that would be acting as confusion factors. Personality, as it involves a steady pattern of behaviors, is theorized to arise as one of these factors.
Our objective was to assess the relationship between personality features and voluntary physical activity in a medical resident sample from Hospital 12 de Octubre (Madrid).
High levels of voluntary physical activity will be associated to high scores on extraversion and conscientiousness dimensions after assessing personality.
The project has been conducted as a transversal descriptive study. Sample: 80 first-year medical residents, ages 23 to 40, and no story of mental disorder, nor chronic disabilities. Main variables: voluntary physical activity measured through International Physical Activity Questionary (IPAQ) and personality features assessed through Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) as proposed from the 5 factors model (neuroticism, extraversion, openess, agreeableness and conscientiouness).
Frequency measures have been used to describe qualitative variables. Arithmetic mean and standard deviation were used to describe quantitative variables. Pearson's correlation was used in order to study the relationship between scores on physical activity and personality factors.
We present preliminary results from first stage of the study, as well implications are discused.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.