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To assess researchers’ experiences working with community advisory boards (CABs) and perceptions of how community member stakeholder feedback impacted the research.
Individual interviews were conducted with researchers (n= 34) who had presented their research to a Mayo Clinic CAB (at MN, AZ, or FL) from 2014 to 2017, with an average interview duration of 10–15 min. Researchers were asked “In what ways did the feedback you received from the CAB influence your research?” A validated, structured, 7-item interview was used to assess domains of the potential influence that CABs had on the research: (1) pre-research (e.g., generated ideas), (2) infrastructure (e.g., budget preparation), (3) research design, (4) implementation (e.g., research recruitment), (5) analysis, (6) dissemination, and (7) post-research. A total mean score was calculated with a possible range of 0–7. In addition, open-ended examples and feedback from researchers in response to each domain were summarized for themes using content analysis.
Researchers reported that the CAB influenced research in the following domains: pre-research (24%), infrastructure (24%), study design (41%), implementation (41%), analysis (6%), dissemination (24%), and post-research activities (18%). The mean total score was = 1.8 (SD = 1.7, range: 0–6). Open-ended responses revealed major themes of CAB helpfulness in generating/refining ideas, identifying community partners, culturally tailored and targeted recruitment strategies, intervention design and delivery, and dissemination.
Findings from this preliminary evaluation indicate that despite positive experiences noted in open-ended feedback, the perceived quantitative impact of CAB feedback on the research was moderate. Bidirectional communication between researchers and community member stakeholders has the potential to make clinical and translational research more relevant and appropriate.
To mitigate the impact of racism, sexism, and other systemic biases, it is essential for organizations to develop strategies to address their diversity, equity and inclusion (DEI) climates. The objective of this formative evaluation was to assess Mayo Clinic Department of Health Sciences Research (HSR) faculty and staff perceptions toward a proposed departmental DEI plan and to explore findings by diversity and professional subgroups.
Materials and methods:
Key plan components include recruitment and support for diverse individuals; training for all HSR employees and leaders; and a review system to capture diversity and inclusion feedback for leaders. Additional activities include building inclusion “nudges” into existing performance reviews. To assess pre-implementation beliefs about specific plan components, we polled attendees at a departmental staff meeting in July 2020.
Overall, respondents (n = 162) commonly endorsed a blinded promotion review process and DEI training for all staff and leaders as most important. In contrast, respondents expressed less support for plan activities related to “nudges.” However, attitudes among certain diversity or professional groups toward specific plan activities diverged from their non-diversity group counterparts. Qualitative feedback indicated awareness of the need to address DEI issues.
Overall, HSR faculty and staff respondents conveyed support for the plan. However, some specific plan activities were perceived differently by members of certain diversity or professional subgroups.
These findings present a DEI framework on which other institutions can build and point to future directions for how DEI activities may be differentially perceived by impacted faculty and staff.
Approximately, 1.7 million individuals in the United States have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This has disproportionately impacted adults, but many children have been infected and hospitalised as well. To date, there is not much information published addressing the cardiac workup and monitoring of children with COVID-19. Here, we share the approach to the cardiac workup and monitoring utilised at a large congenital heart centre in New York City, the epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.
Damage to the corticospinal tract (CST) from stroke leads to motor deficits. The damage can be quantified as the amount of overlap between the stroke lesion and CST (CST Injury). Previous literature has shown that the degree of motor deficits post-stroke is related to the amount of CST Injury. These studies delineate the stroke lesion from structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, often acquired for research. In Canada, computed tomography (CT) is the most common imaging modality used in routine acute stroke care. In this proof-of-principle study, we determine whether CST Injury, using lesions delineated from CT scans, significantly explains the variability in motor impairment in individuals with stroke.
Thirty-seven participants with stroke were included in this study. These individuals had a CT scan within the acute stage (7 days) of their stroke and underwent motor assessments. Brain images from CT scans were registered to MRI space. We performed a stepwise regression analysis to determine the contribution of CST injury and demographic variables in explaining motor impairment variability.
Using clinically available CT scans, we found modest evidence that CST Injury explains variability in motor impairment (R2adj = 0.12, p = 0.02). None of the participant demographic variables entered the model.
We show for the first time a relationship between CST Injury and motor impairment using CT scans. Further work is required to evaluate the utility of data derived from clinical CT scans as a biomarker of stroke motor recovery.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor with outcomes varying from spontaneous regression to metastatic with high mortality rates. The tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) may play a significant role in this disease. In this study we analyze the TIME comparing high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) NBs using multiplex platforms. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Two tissue microarrays (TMAs) with 2mm cores were created from 41 patients treated at Columbia University Irving Medical Center. Five micron TMA slides were stained for Digital Spatial Profiling (DSP, nanoString) and multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF). For DSP, a 24-patient subset including 11 HR, 8 LR and 4 intermediate risk patients was analyzed for 34 proteins. Protein expression among risk groups was compared using Mann-Whitney t-test. For mIF, TMA FFPE slides were stained for DAPI, CD3, CD8, CD68, HLA-DR, PDL1 and Chromogranin A. Whole TMA cores were captured as 9 -20X multispectral images (MSIs) stitched into a 3x3 MSI using Vectra (Akoya). MSIs were processed with inForm and qualitative analysis performed comparing HR and LR tumors. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: With DSP, we find significantly more HLA-DR in HR compared to LR tumors (p = 0.016). When controlling for immune cells with CD45 we find HLA-DR/CD45 to be higher in HR than LR tumors (p = 0.026). We found increased PD1 and PDL1 expression in all groups without significant difference between LR and HR (p = 0.778 and p = 0.310, respectively). Preliminary analysis of mIF on 9 patients (4 HR and 5 LR) finds HR tumors appear to have more immune cells than LR tumors, specifically more CD3+CD8- T cells while total CD8+ cells may be similar. There may be less macrophages in the HR compared to LR tumors. Completion of image processing and quantitative analysis of mIF data is underway. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Increased expression of immune markers in NB TIME correlates with higher risk, which is unlike many other tumors. We compared TIME in HR and LR NB using multiplex platforms, DSP and mIF. We find that HLA-DR is more expressed in HR NB while PD1 and PDL1 expression is consistently high and not different between risk groups. Further analysis is underway. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: Robyn D. Gartrell-Corrado received grant support from nanoString for Digital Spatial Profiling and received honoraria and travel support from Northwest Biotherapeutics and PerkinElmer, respectively.
Adolescent-onset schizophrenia (AOS) is associated with cognitive impairment and poor clinical outcome. Cognitive dysfunction is hypothesised, in part, to reflect functional dysconnectivity between the frontal cortex and the striatum, although structural abnormalities consistent with this hypothesis have not yet been demonstrated in adolescence.
To characterise frontostriatal white matter (WM) tracts in relation to cognition in AOS.
A MRI volumetric and diffusion tensor imaging study.
Thirty-seven AOS subjects and 24 age and sex-matched healthy subjects.
Using probabilistic tractography, cortical regions with the highest connection probability for each striatal voxel were determined, and correlated with IQ and specific cognitive functions after co-varying for age and sex. Fractional anisotropy (FA) from individual tracts was a secondary measure.
Bayesian Structural Equation modeling of FA from 12 frontostriatal tracts showed processing speed to be an intermediary variable for cognition. AOS patients demonstrated generalised cognitive impairment with specific deficits in verbal learning and memory and in processing speed after correction for IQ. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex connectivity with the striatum correlated positively with these measures and with IQ. DTI voxel-wise comparisons showed lower connectivity between striatum and the motor and lateral orbitofrontal cortices bilaterally, the left amygdalohippocampal complex, right anterior cingulate cortex, left medial orbitofrontal cortex and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
Frontostriatal dysconnectivity in large WM tracts that can explain core cognitive deficits are evident during adolescence. Processing speed, which is affected by alterations in WM connectivity, appears an intermediary variable in the cognitive deficits seen in schizophrenia.
A new fossil site in a previously unexplored part of western Madagascar (the Beanka Protected Area) has yielded remains of many recently extinct vertebrates, including giant lemurs (Babakotia radofilai, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Pachylemur sp., and Archaeolemur edwardsi), carnivores (Cryptoprocta spelea), the aardvark-like Plesiorycteropus sp., and giant ground cuckoos (Coua). Many of these represent considerable range extensions. Extant species that were extirpated from the region (e.g., Prolemur simus) are also present. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for 10 bones from extinct primates span the last three millennia. The largely undisturbed taphonomy of bone deposits supports the interpretation that many specimens fell in from a rock ledge above the entrance. Some primates and other mammals may have been prey items of avian predators, but human predation is also evident. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) suggest that fossils were local to the area. Pottery sherds and bones of extinct and extant vertebrates with cut and chop marks indicate human activity in previous centuries. Scarcity of charcoal and human artifacts suggests only occasional visitation to the site by humans. The fossil assemblage from this site is unusual in that, while it contains many sloth lemurs, it lacks ratites, hippopotami, and crocodiles typical of nearly all other Holocene subfossil sites on Madagascar.
Although the science of team science is no longer a new field, the measurement of team science and its standardization remain in relatively early stages of development. To describe the current state of team science assessment, we conducted an integrative review of measures of research collaboration quality and outcomes.
Collaboration measures were identified using both a literature review based on specific keywords and an environmental scan. Raters abstracted details about the measures using a standard tool. Measures related to collaborations with clinical care, education, and program delivery were excluded from this review.
We identified 44 measures of research collaboration quality, which included 35 measures with reliability and some form of statistical validity reported. Most scales focused on group dynamics. We identified 89 measures of research collaboration outcomes; 16 had reliability and 15 had a validity statistic. Outcome measures often only included simple counts of products; publications rarely defined how counts were delimited, obtained, or assessed for reliability. Most measures were tested in only one venue.
Although models of collaboration have been developed, in general, strong, reliable, and valid measurements of such collaborations have not been conducted or accepted into practice. This limitation makes it difficult to compare the characteristics and impacts of research teams across studies or to identify the most important areas for intervention. To advance the science of team science, we provide recommendations regarding the development and psychometric testing of measures of collaboration quality and outcomes that can be replicated and broadly applied across studies.
Identifying risk factors of individuals in a clinical-high-risk state for psychosis are vital to prevention and early intervention efforts. Among prodromal abnormalities, cognitive functioning has shown intermediate levels of impairment in CHR relative to first-episode psychosis and healthy controls, highlighting a potential role as a risk factor for transition to psychosis and other negative clinical outcomes. The current study used the AX-CPT, a brief 15-min computerized task, to determine whether cognitive control impairments in CHR at baseline could predict clinical status at 12-month follow-up.
Baseline AX-CPT data were obtained from 117 CHR individuals participating in two studies, the Early Detection, Intervention, and Prevention of Psychosis Program (EDIPPP) and the Understanding Early Psychosis Programs (EP) and used to predict clinical status at 12-month follow-up. At 12 months, 19 individuals converted to a first episode of psychosis (CHR-C), 52 remitted (CHR-R), and 46 had persistent sub-threshold symptoms (CHR-P). Binary logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression were used to test prediction models.
Baseline AX-CPT performance (d-prime context) was less impaired in CHR-R compared to CHR-P and CHR-C patient groups. AX-CPT predictive validity was robust (0.723) for discriminating converters v. non-converters, and even greater (0.771) when predicting CHR three subgroups.
These longitudinal outcome data indicate that cognitive control deficits as measured by AX-CPT d-prime context are a strong predictor of clinical outcome in CHR individuals. The AX-CPT is brief, easily implemented and cost-effective measure that may be valuable for large-scale prediction efforts.
Over 80% of CTSA programs have a community advisory board (CAB). Little is known about how research discussed with CABs aligns with community priorities (bidirectionality). This program evaluation assessed researcher presentations from 2014 to 2018 to the CABs linked to our CTSA at all three sites (Minnesota, Arizona, and Florida) for relevance to local community needs identified in 2013 and/or 2016. From content analysis, of 65 presentations total, 41 (63%) addressed ≥1 local health needs (47% Minnesota, 60% Florida, and 80% Arizona). Cross-cutting topics were cancer/cancer prevention (physical activity/obesity/nutrition) and mental health. Results could help to prioritize health outcomes of community-engaged research efforts.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Over 80% of CTSA programs have a community advisory board (CAB), an effective strategy to increase community engagement (CE) in research. Little is known about how the research discussed with CABs aligns with community priorities (i.e., bi-directionality). This program evaluation assessed the health topics presented by researchers to the CABs linked to our CE Program at all three Mayo Clinic sites (MN, AZ, and FL) for relevance to local community needs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Two coders classified Mayo researcher presentations to our CABs from 2014-2018 for relevance to needs identified in the local 2013 and/or 2016 County Health Needs Assessments and specific topic(s); with high levels of agreement (Kappa=0.90). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Overall, of the 65 presentations 41 (63%) addressed one or more local health needs (47% MN, 60% FL, 80% AZ). Cross-cutting health topics addressed at 2 sites were physical activity/obesity/nutrition and mental health. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Findings were shared with our CABs to obtain input on future directions. The FL and AZ CABs are systematic in seeking out or initiating research projects that address local health needs, an approach the MN site is interested in adopting. Ultimately, it is important to demonstrate improved health outcomes with CTSA-based CE research strategies. Understanding community health needs and depth of researchers in those areas may help to focus priorities for demonstrating such outcomes.
The pipeline metaphor used to characterize dwindling interest in science and STEM-related careers has gradually been replaced by alternative models that convey complex pathways into, through and out of science by young men and women. In this chapter, we review literatures from educational psychology, cognitive development, and science education and present our own mixed methods approach to developing a model of the roles that children, parents and teachers play in launching, supporting, and sustaining pathways to science interest from early childhood to the transition to college. We use our longitudinal data to describe cases that illustrate these critical developmental inflection points. These rich cases illustrate the advantages of using qualitative methods, when possible, to augment developmental models derived from more quantitative approaches depicted through path diagrams, phase models, or Sankey diagrams. The cases discussed highlight critical roles that parents and teachers might play in nurturing science interests among males and females. Implications for future research and suggestions for practice are considered.
Development, in fact, may be viewed best as a set of multiple developmental trajectories, and our task as developmentalists is to discover how the interplay between different trajectories of children and adults accounts for outcomes.
The present study’s aim was to assess the impact of a nutrition-sensitive intervention on dietary diversity and home gardening among non-participants residing within intervention communities.
The study was a cross-sectional risk factor analysis using linear and logistic multivariate models.
In Tanzania, women and children often consume monotonous diets of poor nutritional value primarily because of physical or financial inaccessibility or low awareness of healthy foods.
Participants were women of reproductive age (18–49 years) in rural Tanzania.
Mean dietary diversity was low with women consuming three out of ten possible food groups. Only 23·4 % of respondents achieved the recommended minimum dietary diversity of five or more food groups out of ten per day. Compared with those who did not, respondents who had a neighbour who grew crops in their home garden were 2·71 times more likely to achieve minimum dietary diversity (95 % CI 1·60, 4·59; P=0·0004) and 1·91 times more likely to grow a home garden themselves (95 % CI 1·10, 3·33; P=0·02). Other significant predictors of higher dietary diversity were respondent age, education and wealth, and number of crops grown.
These results suggest that there are substantial positive externalities of home garden interventions beyond those attained by the people who own and grow the vegetables. Cost-effectiveness assessments of nutrition-sensitive agriculture, including home garden interventions, should factor in the effects on the community, and not just on the individual households receiving the intervention.
Psychosocial and health-related risk factors for depressive symptoms are known. It is unclear if these are associated with depressive symptom patterns over time. We identified trajectories of depressive symptoms and their risk factors among midlife women followed over 15 years.
Participants were 3300 multiracial/ethnic women enrolled in a multisite longitudinal menopause and aging study, Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Biological, psychosocial, and depressive symptom data were collected approximately annually. Group-based trajectory modeling identified women with similar longitudinal patterns of depressive symptoms. Trajectory groups were compared on time-invariant and varying characteristics using multivariable multinomial analyses and pairwise comparisons.
Five symptom trajectories were compared (50% very low; 29% low; 5% increasing; 11% decreasing; 5% high). Relative to whites, blacks were less likely to be in the increasing trajectory and more likely to be in the decreasing symptom trajectory and Hispanics were more likely to have a high symptom trajectory than an increasing trajectory. Psychosocial/health factors varied between groups. A rise in sleep problems was associated with higher odds of having an increasing trajectory and a rise in social support was associated with lower odds. Women with low role functioning for 50% or more visits had three times the odds of being in the increasing symptom group.
Changes in psychosocial and health characteristics were related to changing depressive symptom trajectories. Health care providers need to evaluate women's sleep quality, social support, life events, and role functioning repeatedly during midlife to monitor changes in these and depressive symptoms.
The bright nearby binary α Centauri constitutes an excellent laboratory for testing stellar evolution models. The mass, radius, and luminosity of α Cen A and B are known to better than 1% accuracy thanks to recent interferometric and adaptive optical observations, and p-mode oscillations have been observed in both stars. We present new stellar models which fit simultaneously the classical and seismic observations, with particular emphasis on the convective mixing length parameter MLT – the adaptivity of which is necessary to fit the models to observations. The oscillation data provide an important constraint on the models, as the small frequency separation is sensitive to the composition gradient in the core of the stars, while the large frequency separation constrains the mean density of the stars, providing an independent check on the mass and radius.
Loss of cortical volume in frontotemporal regions occurs in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and longitudinal studies have reported progressive brain volume changes at different stages of the disease, even if cognitive deficits remain stable over time. We investigated cortical changes in patients over the 2 years following their FEP and their associations with clinical and cognitive measures.
Twenty-seven patients after their FEP (20 with schizophrenia, seven with schizo-affective disorder) and 25 healthy controls matched for age and gender participated in this study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a 1.5-T scanner both at baseline and after 2 years. Area and thickness of the cortex were measured using surface-based morphometry (SBM). Patients also underwent neuropsychological testing at these two time points.
Progressive cortical thinning in the superior and inferior frontal and, to a lesser extent, superior temporal cortex was observed in patients. Cortical area remained constant. Cortical thinning was associated with duration of treatment at a trend level and was predicted by baseline measures of IQ and working memory. Cortical thinning occurred in the absence of clinical or cognitive deterioration.
The clinical implications of these cortical changes remain uncertain, but patients with less cognitive reserve may be more vulnerable to developing cortical abnormalities when exposed to medication or other disease-related biological factors.