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In this study, we examined the relationship between polygenic liability for depression and number of stressful life events (SLEs) as risk factors for early-onset depression treated in inpatient, outpatient or emergency room settings at psychiatric hospitals in Denmark.
Data were drawn from the iPSYCH2012 case-cohort sample, a population-based sample of individuals born in Denmark between 1981 and 2005. The sample included 18 532 individuals who were diagnosed with depression by a psychiatrist by age 31 years, and a comparison group of 20 184 individuals. Information on SLEs was obtained from nationwide registers and operationalized as a time-varying count variable. Hazard ratios and cumulative incidence rates were estimated using Cox regressions.
Risk for depression increased by 35% with each standard deviation increase in polygenic liability (p < 0.0001), and 36% (p < 0.0001) with each additional SLE. There was a small interaction between polygenic liability and SLEs (β = −0.04, p = 0.0009). The probability of being diagnosed with depression in a hospital-based setting between ages 15 and 31 years ranged from 1.5% among males in the lowest quartile of polygenic liability with 0 events by age 15, to 18.8% among females in the highest quartile of polygenic liability with 4+ events by age 15.
These findings suggest that although there is minimal interaction between polygenic liability and SLEs as risk factors for hospital-treated depression, combining information on these two important risk factors could potentially be useful for identifying high-risk individuals.
Many healthcare workers do not seek help, despite their enormous stress and greater risk for anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
This study screened for psychopathology and evaluated the efficacy of a brief, social contact-based video intervention in increasing treatment-seeking intentions among healthcare workers (trial registration: NCT04497415). We anticipated finding high rates of psychopathology and greater treatment-seeking intentions post-intervention.
Healthcare workers (n = 350) were randomised to (a) a brief video-based intervention at day 1, coupled with a booster video at day 14; (b) the video at day 1 only; or (c) a non-intervention control. In the 3 min video, a female nurse described difficulty coping with stress, her anxieties and depression, barriers to care and how therapy helped her. Assessments were conducted pre- and post-intervention and at 14- and 30-day follow-ups.
Of the 350 healthcare workers, 281 (80%) reported probable anxiety, depression and/or PTSD. Participants were principally nurses (n = 237; 68%), physicians (n = 52; 15%) and emergency medical technicians (n = 30; 9%). The brief video-based intervention yielded greater increases in treatment-seeking intentions than the control condition, particularly among participants in the repeat-video group. Exploratory analysis revealed that in both video groups, we found greater effect among nurses than non-nurses.
A brief video-based intervention increased treatment-seeking intention, possibly through identification and emotional engagement with the video protagonist. A booster video magnified that effect. This easily disseminated intervention could increase the likelihood of seeking care and offer employers a proactive approach to encourage employees to search for help if needed.
The current study aims to examine the prevalence rates and the relationship of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and comorbid depression/anxiety with neurocognitive performance in college athletes at baseline. We hypothesized a priori that the mood disturbance groups would perform worse than healthy controls, with the comorbid group performing worst overall.
Eight hundred and thirty-one (M = 620, F = 211) collegiate athletes completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery at baseline which included self-report measures of anxiety and depression. Athletes were separated into four groups [Healthy Control (HC) (n = 578), Depressive Symptoms Only (n = 137), Anxiety Symptoms Only (n = 54), and Comorbid Depressive/Anxiety Symptoms (n = 62)] based on their anxiety and depression scores. Athletes’ neurocognitive functioning was analyzed via Z score composites of Attention/Processing Speed and Memory.
One-way analysis of variance revealed that, compared to HC athletes, the comorbid group performed significantly worse on measures of Attention/Processing Speed but not Memory. However, those in the depressive symptoms only and anxiety symptoms only groups were not significantly different from one another or the HC group on neurocognitive outcomes. Chi-square analyses revealed that a significantly greater proportion of athletes in all three affective groups were neurocognitively impaired compared to the HC group.
These results demonstrate that collegiate athletes with comorbid depressive/anxiety symptoms should be identified, as their poorer cognitive performance at baseline could complicate post-concussion interpretation. Thus, assessing for mood disturbance at baseline is essential to obtain an accurate measurement of baseline functioning. Further, given the negative health outcomes associated with affective symptomatology, especially comorbidities, it is important to provide care as appropriate.
Junglerice is becoming more prevalent in Tennessee, Arkansas and Mississippi row crop fields. The evolution of glyphosate-resistant junglerice populations is one reason for the increase. Another possible explanation is that glyphosate and clethodim grass activity is being antagonized by dicamba. This question has led to research to examine if sequential applications alleviate antagonism observed with dicamba plus glyphosate and/or clethodim mixtures and determine if 24 h, 72 h or 168 h sequential treatments of those herbicides can improve junglerice control. Glyphosate + clethodim applications provided >90% junglerice control. The observed levels of antagonism varied by whether the location of the test was in the greenhouse or the field and the timing of applications. In the greenhouse, clethodim + dicamba provided excellent control while in the field the same treatment showed over a 30% reduction in junglerice control compared with clethodim alone. However, control was restored by using a mixture of glyphosate + clethodim without dicamba. The environment at the time of application and relative glyphosate-resistance (GR) level of the junglerice influenced the overall control of these sequential applications. Clethodim applied first followed by dicamba at 72 or 168 h, better control was observed compared with applying dicamba followed by clethodim. Overall, mixing glyphosate + clethodim provided the most complete junglerice control regardless of timing. These data confirm that leaving dicamba out of the spray tank will mitigate herbicide antagonism on junglerice control. These data would also indicate that avoiding dicamba and glyphosate mixtures will also improve the consistency of control with glyphosate-susceptible junglerice.
We surveyed infectious disease specialists about early COVID-19 vaccination preparedness. Almost all respondents’ institutions rated their facility’s preparedness plan as either excellent or adequate. Vaccine hesitancy and concern about adverse reactions were the most common anticipated barriers to COVID-19 vaccination. Only 60% believed currently that COVID-19 vaccination should be mandatory.
To assess the frequency with which soft drinks and premiums are available with children’s meals marketed on the top restaurant chains websites worldwide.
Cross-sectional structured observational assessment of secondary information about top international restaurant chain children’s meals.
Websites of top restaurant chains for 193 countries and five regions of the United Nations (UN).
Top restaurant chains (including McDonald’s, Subway, Burger King, and KFC) across 193 countries. Children’s meal images and descriptions were reviewed to determine if the meal was served with a soft drink as a beverage option and whether the meal offered a premium.
Children’s meals were marketed online on restaurant websites by at least one of the four chains in a total of 78 of the 193 countries (40.4%). Overall, 56.3% of countries with any online children’s meal marketing by the four chains included at least one chain that marketed soft drinks and 92.3% marketed premiums with the meal.
Every region in the world includes marketing of children’s meals on the websites of the top restaurant chains. The high prevalence of premiums marketed online with children’s meals is of concern. Similarly, with over 50% of countries with online children’s meal marketing having at least one chain that offers soft drinks as part of the meals, additional regulation and education may be warranted.
The association between suicide attempts (SAs) in parents and children is unclear, and risk indicators for intergenerational transmission remain undocumented. We aimed to assess this association, considering the child's developmental period at the time of parents' attempted suicide, and the parental relation.
Using a prospective cohort design, nationwide population data were linked to the Psychiatric Central Register and National Patient Register for all individuals aged 10 years or older living in Denmark between 1980 and 2016. We assessed incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and cumulative hazards for children's first SA.
In a cohort of 4 419 651 children, 163 056 (3.7%) had experienced a parental SA. An SA was recorded among 6996 (4.3%) of the exposed children as opposed to 70112 (1.6%) in unexposed individuals. Higher rates were noted when a parental SA occurred during early childhood (0 ⩽ age < 2) [IRR, 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2–5.4] v. late childhood (6 ⩽ age < 13) (IRR, 3.6; 95% CI 3.4–3.8) when compared to those unexposed. Children exposed prior to age 2 had the highest rates of all sub-groups when reaching age 13–17 (IRR, 6.5; 95% CI 6.0–7.1) and 18–25 years (IRR, 6.8; 95% CI 6.2–7.4). Maternal SA (IRR, 3.4; 95% CI 3.2–3.5) was associated with higher rates than paternal (IRR, 2.8; 95% CI 2.7–2.9).
Parental SA was associated with children's own SA. Exposure during early developmental stages was associated with the highest rates. Early preventive efforts are warranted as is monitoring of suicide risk in the children from age 13.
Exposure to childhood maltreatment (CM) may disrupt typical development of neural systems underlying impulse control and emotion regulation. Yet resilient outcomes are observed in some individuals exposed to CM. Individual differences in adult functioning may result from variation in inhibitory control in the context of emotional distractions, underpinned by cognitive–affective brain circuits. Thirty-eight healthy adults with a history of substantiated CM and 34 nonmaltreated adults from the same longitudinal sample performed a Go/No-Go task in which task-relevant stimuli (letters) were presented at the center of task-irrelevant, negative, or neutral images, while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. The comparison group, but not the maltreated group, made increased inhibitory control errors in the context of negative, but not neutral, distractor images. In addition, the comparison group had greater right inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral frontal pole activation during inhibitory control blocks with negative compared to neutral background images relative to the CM group. Across the full sample, greater adaptive functioning in everyday contexts was associated with superior inhibitory control and greater right frontal pole activation. Results suggest that resilience following early adversity is associated with enhanced attention and behavioral regulation in the context of task-irrelevant negative emotional stimuli in a laboratory setting.
In the following response to Hart and colleagues (2021) we clarify our interpretations of the archaeological record for maize use from western Illinois. The robust archaeological record, newly obtained AMS dates, and evaluations of enamel apatite combine to support a late date for maize cultivation in this region. We reiterate that maize histories in the Eastern Woodlands may vary among different regions.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and impulsive aggression are linked to transdiagnostic neurocognitive deficits. This includes impaired inhibitory control over inappropriate responses. Prior studies showed that inhibitory control can be improved by modulating the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in combination with inhibitory control training. However, its clinical potential remains unclear. We therefore aimed to replicate a tDCS-enhanced inhibitory control training in a clinical sample and test whether this reduces stress-related mental health symptoms.
In a preregistered double-blind randomized-controlled trial, 100 active-duty military personnel and post-active veterans with PTSD, anxiety, or impulsive aggression symptoms underwent a 5-session intervention where a stop-signal response inhibition training was combined with anodal tDCS over the right IFG for 20 min at 1.25 mA. Inhibitory control was evaluated with the emotional go/no-go task and implicit association test. Stress-related symptoms were assessed by self-report at baseline, post-intervention, and after 3-months and 1-year follow-ups.
Active relative to sham tDCS neither influenced performance during inhibitory control training nor on assessment tasks, and did also not significantly influence self-reported symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, impulsive aggression, or depression at post-assessment or follow-up.
Our results do not support the idea that anodal tDCS over the right IFG at 1.25 mA enhances response inhibition training in a clinical sample, or that this tDCS-training combination can reduce stress-related symptoms. Applying different tDCS parameters or combining tDCS with more challenging tasks might provide better conditions to modulate cognitive functioning and stress-related symptoms.
To describe strategies used to recruit and retain young adults in nutrition, physical activity and/or obesity intervention studies, and quantify the success and efficiency of these strategies.
A systematic review was conducted. The search included six electronic databases to identify randomised controlled trials (RCT) published up to 6 December 2019 that evaluated nutrition, physical activity and/or obesity interventions in young adults (17–35 years). Recruitment was considered successful if the pre-determined sample size goal was met. Retention was considered acceptable if ≥80 % retained for ≤6-month follow-up or ≥70 % for >6-month follow-up.
From 21 582 manuscripts identified, 107 RCT were included. Universities were the most common recruitment setting used in eighty-four studies (79 %). Less than half (46 %) of the studies provided sufficient information to evaluate whether individual recruitment strategies met sample size goals, with 77 % successfully achieving recruitment targets. Reporting for retention was slightly better with 69 % of studies providing sufficient information to determine whether individual retention strategies achieved adequate retention rates. Of these, 65 % had adequate retention.
This review highlights poor reporting of recruitment and retention information across trials. Findings may not be applicable outside a university setting. Guidance on how to improve reporting practices to optimise recruitment and retention strategies within young adults could assist researchers in improving outcomes.
In April 2019, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) released its recovery plan for the jaguar Panthera onca after several decades of discussion, litigation and controversy about the status of the species in the USA. The USFWS estimated that potential habitat, south of the Interstate-10 highway in Arizona and New Mexico, had a carrying capacity of c. six jaguars, and so focused its recovery programme on areas south of the USA–Mexico border. Here we present a systematic review of the modelling and assessment efforts over the last 25 years, with a focus on areas north of Interstate-10 in Arizona and New Mexico, outside the recovery unit considered by the USFWS. Despite differences in data inputs, methods, and analytical extent, the nine previous studies found support for potential suitable jaguar habitat in the central mountain ranges of Arizona and New Mexico. Applying slightly modified versions of the USFWS model and recalculating an Arizona-focused model over both states provided additional confirmation. Extending the area of consideration also substantially raised the carrying capacity of habitats in Arizona and New Mexico, from six to 90 or 151 adult jaguars, using the modified USFWS models. This review demonstrates the crucial ways in which choosing the extent of analysis influences the conclusions of a conservation plan. More importantly, it opens a new opportunity for jaguar conservation in North America that could help address threats from habitat losses, climate change and border infrastructure.
Fundamental knowledge about the processes that control the functioning of the biophysical workings of ecosystems has expanded exponentially since the late 1960s. Scientists, then, had only primitive knowledge about C, N, P, S, and H2O cycles; plant, animal, and soil microbial interactions and dynamics; and land, atmosphere, and water interactions. With the advent of systems ecology paradigm (SEP) and the explosion of technologies supporting field and laboratory research, scientists throughout the world were able to assemble the knowledge base known today as ecosystem science. This chapter describes, through the eyes of scientists associated with the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory (NREL) at Colorado State University (CSU), the evolution of the SEP in discovering how biophysical systems at small scales (ecological sites, landscapes) function as systems. The NREL and CSU are epicenters of the development of ecosystem science. Later, that knowledge, including humans as components of ecosystems, has been applied to small regions, regions, and the globe. Many research results that have formed the foundation for ecosystem science and management of natural resources, terrestrial environments, and its waters are described in this chapter. Throughout are direct and implicit references to the vital collaborations with the global network of ecosystem scientists.
Systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure is important in patients with single ventricle heart disease. Predictors of an elevated systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure prior to bidirectional Glenn operation have been incompletely identified.
All patients who underwent bidirectional Glenn operation operation at our centre between January 2007 and March 2017 were retrospectively identified and patient variables were extracted. For patients who had undergone Fontan operation at the time of this study, post-Fontan patient variables were also extracted.
One-hundred patients were included with a median age at pre-bidirectional Glenn operation catheterisation of 4.5 months. In total, 71 (71%) patients had a systemic right ventricle. At the pre-bidirectional Glenn operation catheterisation, the mean systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure was higher amongst those with systemic right ventricle compared to left ventricle (9.1 mmHg ± 2.1 versus 7.7 ± 2.7 mmHg, p < 0.01). On univariate analysis, pre-bidirectional Glenn operation systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure was positively associated with the presence of a systemic right ventricle (p < 0.01), history of recoarctation (p = 0.03), history of Norwood operation (p = 0.04), and ventricular systolic pressure (p < 0.01). On multivariate analysis, systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure was positively associated with the presence of a systemic right ventricle (p < 0.01) and ventricular systolic pressure (p < 0.01). Amongst those who had undergone Fontan operation at the time of study (n = 49), those with a higher pre-bidirectional Glenn operation systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure were more likely to have experienced death, transplantation, or listed for transplantation (p = 0.02) and more likely to have had heart failure symptoms (p = 0.04) at a mean time from Fontan of 5.2 years ± 1.3.
In patients undergoing bidirectional Glenn operation operation, the volume-loaded, pre-bidirectional Glenn operation state may expose diastolic dysfunction that has prognostic value.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Here, we describe extensive sex-specific differences in the transcriptomes of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). Given that the clinical course of PNETs differs by sex (female sex is associated with better survival), achieving a greater understanding of the specific molecular sexual dimorphisms is invaluable for advancing personalized treatment. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Epidemiologic studies demonstrate that pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) exhibit sexual dimorphisms with regards to prognosis, disease recurrence, and complication rates. We sought to compare the transcription and DNA methylation landscapes of PNETs by sex, to elucidate molecular differences that may underlie this sex disparity. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: RNAseq data was generated from PNETs surgically resected at our institution (9 Female; 12 Male patients). RNA was extracted with the RNeasy Mini Kit, stranded sequencing libraries were prepared with TruSeq, and paired end sequencing was done on the HiSeq 2500/4000 systems. Transcript-level quantification was performed with salmon, and DESeq2 was used for differential expression analysis. To account for significant variation due to covariates other than sex, surrogate variables were computed with the SVA package and adjusted for. The goseq package was used for gene set over representation analysis. Matched DNA methylation (DNAm) and RNAseq data was downloaded from GEO (16 F; 16 M). Raw DNAm data was processed with minfi. Differential methylation analysis was done with limma and bumphunter. Analysis was done in R. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We found that 826 autosomal genes were differentially expressed (DE) by sex in PNETs (at FDR ≤0.1). Gene set over representation analysis performed on the DE genes revealed significant enrichment for several processes, including ‘ascorbate & aldarate metabolism’ and ‘positive regulation of ERK1 & ERK2 cascade’ (all FDR ≤0.1). When we compared DNAm profiles between sexes, we found 8 CpGs which were differentially methylated by sex (at FDR ≤0.1), 7 of which were proximal to genes. Methylation of one of the sex-associated CpGs, overlapping the gene TIMM8B, was found to be negatively correlated with gene expression (rho=-0.41; p-value=0.02). Interestingly, TIMM8B deletion has been previously reported in other non-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. There were no differentially methylated regions between sexes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Our findings demonstrate that PNETs exhibit extensive sexual dimorphisms with regards to gene expression profiles but have largely congruent methylomes by sex. These molecular differences may contribute to the variability in clinical course between men and women, and their characterization is vital for the advancement of personalized medicine.
Restudy of Proexenocrinus inyoensis Strimple and McGinnis, 1972, shows that this earliest-known rhodocrinitid diplobathrid camerate crinoid (late Floian, Early Ordovician) expresses the only known record of ambulacral floor plates within pinnules. These pinnule floor plates are remarkably conserved plesiomorphic expressions, with anatomy similar to floor plates of some of the earliest pentaradiate echinoderms, although on a smaller scale. Proexenocrinus floor plates provide direct skeletal evidence that the general resemblance of blastozoan (eocrinoid, diploporan, rhombiferan) brachioles and crinoid pinnules is the product of homoplasy. Proexenocrinus posterior cup morphology is interpreted to include an anitaxis, a distinctive posterior interray morphology.
Friedrich Hayek’s business cycle theory withered throughout the 1930s as he admitted that its underlying model of Böhm-Bawerkian roundaboutness was incomplete and inadequate. In 1934, Hayek started a two-volume book on capital theory, completing only one volume in 1941. Curiously, Hayek ( 2009) cites John Hicks’s (1939) Value and Capital but not the financial measure of roundaboutness that Hicks suggested as a substitute for Böhm-Bawerkian roundaboutness. In 1967, in “The Hayek Story,” Hicks criticized the inexplicable lags. Hayek maintained his view that consumption was sticky and responded to Hicks with a mound-of-honey analogy. Nevertheless, Hayek maintained that his business cycle theory was fundamentally correct and continued to hope that others might someday discover a capital structure theory to undergird it. Toward fulfilling Hayek’s hope, we suggest augmenting the canonical stages of production with a sequestered-capital stage where products are invented, productized, and inventoried prior to launch, uncoordinated by observable prices.