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Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak of the temporal bone is an emerging clinical entity for which prompt and accurate diagnosis is difficult given the subtle signs and symptoms that patients present with. This study sought to describe the key temporal bone abnormalities in patients with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted of adult patients with biochemically confirmed spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak. Demographics and radiological features identified on computed tomography imaging of the temporal bones and/or magnetic resonance imaging were analysed.
Sixty-one patients with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak were identified. Fifty-four patients (88.5 per cent) underwent both temporal bone computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Despite imaging revealing bilateral defects in over 75 per cent of the cohort, only two patients presented with bilateral spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Anterior tegmen mastoideum defects were most common, with an average size of 2.5 mm (range, 1–10 mm).
Temporal bone computed tomography is sensitive for the identification of defects when suspicion exists. In the setting of an opacified middle ear and/or mastoid, close examination of the skull base is crucial given that this fluid is potentially cerebrospinal fluid.
There is ongoing debate regarding the relationship between clinical symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). The present study aimed to explore the potential relationships between symptoms, with an emphasis on negative symptoms, and social and non-social cognition.
Hierarchical cluster analysis with k-means optimisation was conducted to characterise clinical subgroups using the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms in n = 130 SSD participants. Emergent clusters were compared on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery, which measures non-social cognition and emotion management as well as demographic and clinical variables. Spearman’s correlations were then used to investigate potential relationships between specific negative symptoms and emotion management and non-social cognition.
Four distinct clinical subgroups were identified: 1. high hallucinations, 2. mixed symptoms, 3. high negative symptoms, and 4. relatively asymptomatic. The high negative symptom subgroup was found to have significantly poorer emotion management than the high hallucination and relatively asymptomatic subgroups. No further differences between subgroups were observed. Correlation analyses revealed avolition-apathy and anhedonia-asociality were negatively correlated with emotion management, but not non-social cognition. Affective flattening and alogia were not associated with either emotion management or non-social cognition.
The present study identified associations between negative symptoms and emotion management within social cognition, but no domains of non-social cognition. This relationship may be specific to motivation, anhedonia and apathy, but not expressive deficits. This suggests that targeted interventions for social cognition may also result in parallel improvement in some specific negative symptoms.
Vitamin C deficiency has been a historical disease rarely seen nowadays. We illustrate a case of a boy with autism presenting with severe pulmonary hypertension and refusal to walk secondary to vitamin C deficiency. Initiating treatment with high-dose vitamin C reversed his symptoms and he regained full power of his lower limbs with total normalisation of his pulmonary pressures.
The motivation of the patient may affect response to treatment and prognosis.
The objective of this study was to compare the various types of application of patients in terms of their motivation and sociodemographic variables.
To demonstrate that patients who apply for treatment themselves have greater motivation and less depression and anxiety.
Patients who applied or were referred for treatment of addiction to the Elazig Hospital for Mental Disorders were included in this study. Patients diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, giving written informed consent and who did not have severe comorbid psychopathology were enrolled. Beck Depression and Anxiety Scales, and Motivation for Treatment Scale (MfT) were used in evaluation. p was set at 0.05.
Forty five male patients with a mean age of 37.9 (S.D. 11.2) were enrolled in the study. The mean scores for Beck Depression and Anxiety Scales and the Motivation for Treatment Scale were 27.7 (S.D. 12.8), 25.2 (S.D. 15.2) and 67.4 (S.D. 11.4); respectively. When the socio-demographic and clinical variables of the patients who applied voluntarily and those who were referred for treatment involuntarily were compared by Mann-Whitney U test, only the total score on the Motivation for Treatment Scale as well as those of its subscales for seeking help and being ready for treatment differed betwen groups (p: 0.01, 0.05 and 0.01; respectively).
Types of application for treatment may affect levels of motivation in patients for treatment. Techniques for motivational interview may especially be important for patients applying involuntarily.
Impulse control behaviours (ICB) are repetitive and excessive activities that are subsyndromal, unfulfilled the diagnostic criteria but potentially challenging problem. Impulse control disorder (ICD) on contrary is an established diagnosis which requires clinical attention.
To determine the proportion of patients with ICD among those screened positive with ICB among patients with Parkinson's disease in an Asian population. The factors associated with ICB were also examined.
Eighty consecutive patients attending neurology clinic who fulfilled the inclusion criteria i.e. diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's, on stable dopaminergic medication for at least 3 months were recruited in this prospective cross-sectional study. ICB were identified using the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorder for Parkinson's disease (QUIP). Those who were screened positive, with controls, then underwent semi structured interview based on SCID-ICD.
11.3% were screened positive for ICB; these were significantly associated with higher education (p=0.022), advanced stage of disease (p=0.026) and higher levodopa dosage (p= 0.01). The most frequent ICB was compulsive medication use (7.5%), followed by hobbyism (6.25%), hypersexuality (5%), compulsive buying (3.75%), punding (2.5%), walkabout (2.5%), compulsive eating (1.25%) and pathological gambling (1.25%). 50% of those with positive QUIP (section1) fulfilled the criteria for ICD (50% positive-predictive value) while none with negative QUIP had ICD (100% negative predictive value).
About 1 in 10 patients with Parkinson's disease displayed ICB, half of which might have a diagnosable ICD. The risk should alert the physicians of the need for routine assessment of impulse control problems in patients with Parkinson's disease.
This article is a summary of perspectives on training curricula from child and adolescent psychiatry trainees globally. We aimed to identify the relative strengths, weaknesses and gaps in learning needs from a trainee's perspective. The 20 early-career child psychiatrists who contributed are from 16 countries and represent all the five continents. We could identify some global challenges as well as local/regional challenges that need to be addressed to develop competent child psychiatrists.
Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by bone loss and bone microarchitectural deterioration. The combination of smart materials and stem cells represents a new therapeutic approach. In the present study, highly porous scaffolds are prepared by combining the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS with collagen type I, the most abundant protein in bone. The inclusion of collagen proves to be an effective way to modulate their mechanical properties and it induces an increase in scaffolds’ electrochemical impedance. The biomimetic scaffolds support neural crest-derived stem cell osteogenic differentiation, with no need for scaffold pre-conditioning contrarily to other reports.
Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) can reduce the production efficiency and impair the welfare of cattle, potentially in all production systems. The aim of this study was to characterise measurable postmortem observations from divergently managed intensive beef finishing farms with high rates of concentrate feeding. At the time of slaughter, we obtained samples from 19 to 20 animals on each of 6 beef finishing units (119 animals in total) with diverse feeding practices, which had been subjectively classified as being high risk (three farms) or low risk (three farms) for SARA on the basis of the proportions of barley, silage and straw in the ration. We measured the concentrations of histamine, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lactate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in ruminal fluid, LPS and SCFA in caecal fluid. We also took samples of the ventral blind sac of the rumen for histopathology, immunohistopathology and gene expression. Subjective assessments were made of the presence of lesions on the ruminal wall, the colour of the lining of the ruminal wall and the shape of the ruminal papillae. Almost all variables differed significantly and substantially among farms. Very few pathological changes were detected in any of the rumens examined. The animals on the high-risk diets had lower concentrations of SCFA and higher concentrations of lactate and LPS in the ruminal fluid. Higher LPS concentrations were found in the caecum than the rumen but were not related to the risk status of the farm. The diameters of the stratum granulosum, stratum corneum and of the vasculature of the papillae, and the expression of the gene TLR4 in the ruminal epithelium were all increased on the high-risk farms. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-1β and the counts of cluster of differentiation 3 positive and major histocompatibility complex class two positive cells were lower on the high-risk farms. High among-farm variation and the unbalanced design inherent in this type of study in the field prevented confident assignment of variation in the dependent variables to individual dietary components; however, the CP percentage of the total mixed ration DM was the factor that was most consistently associated with the variables of interest. Despite the strong effect of farm on the measured variables, there was wide inter-animal variation.
To describe an outbreak of bacteremia caused by vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus faecalis (VSEfe).
An investigation by retrospective case control and molecular typing by whole-genome sequencing (WGS).
A tertiary-care neonatal unit in Melbourne, Australia.
Risk factors for 30 consecutive neonates with VSEfe bacteremia from June 2011 to December 2014 were analyzed using a case control study. Controls were neonates matched for gestational age, birth weight, and year of birth. Isolates were typed using WGS, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was determined.
Bacteremia for case patients occurred at a median time after delivery of 23.5 days (interquartile range, 14.9–35.8). Previous described risk factors for nosocomial bacteremia did not contribute to excess risk for VSEfe. WGS typing results designated 43% ST179 as well as 14 other sequence types, indicating a polyclonal outbreak. A multimodal intervention that included education, insertion checklists, guidelines on maintenance and access of central lines, adjustments to the late onset sepsis antibiotic treatment, and the introduction of diaper bags for disposal of soiled diapers after being handled inside the bed, led to termination of the outbreak.
Typing using WGS identified this outbreak as predominately nonclonal and therefore not due to cross transmission. A multimodal approach was then sought to reduce the incidence of VSEfe bacteremia.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
In March 2017, the New Jersey Department of Health received reports of 3 patients who developed septic arthritis after receiving intra-articular injections for osteoarthritis knee pain at the same private outpatient facility in New Jersey. The risk of septic arthritis resulting from intra-articular injection is low. However, outbreaks of septic arthritis associated with unsafe injection practices in outpatient settings have been reported.
An infection prevention assessment of the implicated facility’s practices was conducted because of the ongoing risk to public health. The assessment included an environmental inspection of the facility, staff interviews, infection prevention practice observations, and a medical record and office document review. A call for cases was disseminated to healthcare providers in New Jersey to identify patients treated at the facility who developed septic arthritis after receiving intra-articular injections.
We identified 41 patients with septic arthritis associated with intra-articular injections. Cultures of synovial fluid or tissue from 15 of these 41 case patients (37%) recovered bacteria consistent with oral flora. The infection prevention assessment of facility practices identified multiple breaches of recommended infection prevention practices, including inadequate hand hygiene, unsafe injection practices, and poor cleaning and disinfection practices. No additional cases were identified after infection prevention recommendations were implemented by the facility.
Aseptic technique is imperative when handling, preparing, and administering injectable medications to prevent microbial contamination.
This investigation highlights the importance of adhering to infection prevention recommendations. All healthcare personnel who prepare, handle, and administer injectable medications should be trained in infection prevention and safe injection practices.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Objectives: The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is a complex measure of executive function that is frequently employed to investigate the schizophrenia spectrum. The successful completion of the task requires the interaction of multiple intact executive processes, including attention, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and concept formation. Considerable cognitive heterogeneity exists among the schizophrenia spectrum population, with substantive evidence to support the existence of distinct cognitive phenotypes. The within-group performance heterogeneity of individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) on the WCST has yet to be investigated. A data-driven cluster analysis was performed to characterise WCST performance heterogeneity. Methods: Hierarchical cluster analysis with k-means optimisation was employed to identify homogenous subgroups in a sample of 210 schizophrenia spectrum participants. Emergent clusters were then compared to each other and a group of 194 healthy controls (HC) on WCST performance and demographic/clinical variables. Results: Three clusters emerged and were validated via altered design iterations. Clusters were deemed to reflect a relatively intact patient subgroup, a moderately impaired patient subgroup, and a severely impaired patient subgroup. Conclusions: Considerable within-group heterogeneity exists on the WCST. Identification of subgroups of patients who exhibit homogenous performance on measures of executive functioning may assist in optimising cognitive interventions. Previous associations found using the WCST among schizophrenia spectrum participants should be reappraised. (JINS, 2019, 25, 750–760)
Objectives: Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by insufficient expression of the TCF4 gene. Most cases are characterized by severe intellectual disability, absent speech, motor delays, and autism spectrum disorder. Many have abnormal brain imaging, dysmorphic facial features, and medical comorbidities: myopia, constipation, epilepsy, and apneic spells. The present case study expands existing understanding of this disorder by presenting a unique phenotype with higher cognitive abilities and fewer medical comorbidities. Methods: The present case study reports on a 13-year-old, Caucasian male with a recent diagnosis of PTHS following genetic testing (i.e., whole exome sequencing). He was referred for a neuropsychological evaluation to document his neurocognitive functioning to assist with intervention planning. Results: Evaluation of intellectual, attention/executive, memory, visual-motor/fine-motor, academic, adaptive, and emotional/behavioral functioning revealed global impairment across all areas of functioning. However, he demonstrated abilities beyond what has been detailed in the literature, including use of full sentences, capacity to learn and solve novel problems, basic academic functioning, and independent ambulation. Conclusions: Children with PTHS may demonstrate a spectrum of abilities beyond what has been documented in the literature thus far. Failure to recognize this spectrum can result in late identification of an accurate diagnosis. (JINS, 2018, 24, 995–1002)
Sodium bismuth titanate (NBT) and its solid solutions with other ABO3 perovskites are of great interest for lead-free ferroelectric and piezoelectric applications. In this article, we provide an introduction to the complex structure of NBT, including atomic displacements and nanoscale defects. We also review poling effects and properties as well as NBT-ABO3 phase equilibria. The interesting relaxor properties, frequency dispersion in dielectric permittivity, and field-induced structural phase transitions of these systems are discussed. Finally, we describe other functional, mechanical, and electrical properties of NBT.
We theoretically investigate the impact of feedback and its metallicity dependence in massive star formation from prestellar cores at all metallicity range. We include the feedback by MHD disk winds, radiation pressure, and photoevaporation solving the evolution of protostars and accretion flows self-consistently. Interestingly, we find that the feedback does not set the upper mass limit of stellar birth mass at any metallicity. At the solar metallicity, the MHD disk wind is the dominant feedback to set the star formation efficiencies (SFEs) from the prestellar cores similar to low-mass star formation. The SFE is found to be lower at lower surface density environment. The photoevaporation becomes significant at the low metallicity of Z < 10−2 Z⊙. Considering this efficient photoevaporation, we conclude that the IMF slope is steeper, i.e., massive stars are rarer at the extremely metal-poor environment of 10−5 − 10−3Z⊙. Our study raises a question on the common assumption of the universal IMF with a truncated at 100M⊙. Since the total feedback strength in the cluster/galaxy scale is sensitive to the number fraction of massive stars, the re-evaluations of IMF at various environments are necessary.