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The uncertainty of COVID-pandemia, vital danger and disruptions in the habitual social contacts can be paralleled to the experiences of severe emotional stress and violence, usually found in the people with Borderline Personality Disorder. Both can be regarded as hampering the ability to categorize and express thoughts, feelings and experiences. The implementation of distant forms of psychological counseling may accentuate the mentalization deficiency.
To develop a theoretical framework for an empirical typology of impairments of mentalization.
The model of consciousness proposed by L.S. Vygotsky was used for theoretical generalization of the levels of categorical structures of mentalization observed in previous empirical studies.
The following structures were identified: (1) the syncretic type of mentalization with low differentiation and complexity of object representations, their negative affective tone, autistic, chaotically mutable motivation and low emotional investment in relationships were described in patients with schizotypal disorders; (2) the “complex” type, with literal, non-generalized, field-dependent and rigid, or unstable, representation of the self, others and relationships as a result of the “fusion” of cognitive representations with the current emotional states. Similar types of mentalization were previously described in people with BPD and self-harming behavior (Sokolova, Laisheva, 2017).
The ’syncretic’ and ’complex’ types of mentalization produce affective-cognitive distortions of the image of a psychotherapist, hamper the understanding of the conditional and metaphorical character of the therapeutic process, render difficult the de-traumatization of the unbearable experiences, and lessen the effectiveness of consultations of people with BPD.
Many studies point to cognitive beliefs, attitudes and other psychologicalt traits involved in particularities of reactions to pandemic situation, but the differences in life events are often overlooked.
A study of subjective evaluation of life events during the pandemics.
The modified Lifeline technique was used to elicit life events. In semistructured interview, using a timeline, subjects were asked to indicate and describe events that had an impact on their attitudes, behaviors and feelings since the start of pandemic. Then they evaluated with direct assessment scales each event as to what extent it was anxious, difficult to cope, changed the beliefs concerning COVID-19, fostered the changes of behavior and habits, and led to reappraisal of own values. The events were coded using dichotomous categories: COVID-related vs directly unrelated, universal vs individual, personally involved vs noninvolved, and also were further qualitatively evaluated. 25 young Azerbaijani residents took part in the study.
From 191 events named, 72% were COVID-related, 62% - universal, 62% - with personal involvement. 46% of events were unique (mentioned once). Universal events were more likely to be assessed as anxiogenic, while personal ones as leading to rethink own values and priorities (U, p<.01 and p<.05). Surprisingly, life events in total were assessed as less challenging the beliefs about pandemics while more frequently leading to rethink own values (T, p<.05). Individual events involved more conflict meanings and implications.
Lifeline technique may provide important insights on the impact of life events in complex social transitions and may be used in counseling.
The links between body image disturbances and distorted relationships with parents were supposed since the early conceptualizations of AN by Hilde Bruch. The empirical studies however were concerned with perceptual aspects of body image and much less is known about how the attitudinal aspects and the body-related behaviors are affected.
To study the attitudinal and behavioral aspects of body image in adolescents with AN in relation to perceived parental care and the attachments to close people.
The Body Investment Scale (BSI), Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ) were used. 53 girls with Anorexia Nervosa were compared to 63 controls (adjusted by age).
Girls with AN scored significantly higher on BIS Body attitude (p<.001) and Protection scales (p<.01), while displayed equal results on Body Care scale. They displayed lower Confidence in relationships (p<.01), higher Need for approval, Discomfort and preoccupation in close relationships (p<.05). No differences were found on PBI, excerpt for AN group perceiving less paternal control (p<.05). The correlation analysis, while showing a number of similar correlations within groups, suggests that in AN group positive Body image was more closely linked to perceived early care, especially from father (r=.6), in contrast with controls. In current relationships negative Body image for AN is stronger related to Discomfort and Need for approval (r>0.6), while Discomfort with Touch is less linked to problems in relationships than in controls.
Results suggest the importance of studying the father’s mediating role in the formation of body attitudes in AN.
Both theoretical conceptualizations (M.&E. Laufers, E. Furman, J. Maltsberger, etc. ) and empirical studies (I. Orbach) suggest an important role body image plays in the dynamics of adolescent suicidal attempts.
To study the relationships between body image vulnerability and attachment attitudes concerning early care and current relationships.
Participants were 100 adolescents with suicidal behavior (46 with suicidal ideation only, 54 with suicide attempts) compared to 100 controls (12-17 years). Body attitudes were assessed with Body Investment Scale (BIS), perceived early care was assessed by Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI), current attachments experiences were assessed with Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ).
Adolescents with suicidal manifestations scored significantly lower on BIS Body Care (p<.001) , but higher on Comfort with Touch scales (p=.05). They did not differ significantly on Body Image and Body Protection scales. With regard to perceived early care, suicidal adolescents did score lower on all Care and Control PBI scales, in both paternal and maternal forms. For current attachments suicidal adolescents scored lower on Confidence (p<.001) and higher on Approval Need (p<0.05) ASQ scales. Correlation analysis suggests, for both groups, stronger relationships of body attitude dimensions to current relationships than to perceived parental care, the former being more marked in clinical group, with Body Image scale being related to all ASQ scales ranging from r=-.32 to r=-.63.
In current study only weaker tendency to care for body in suicidal adolescents was noted. However, in suicidal group the relationship between body image vulnerability and negative experiences of current attachments was stronger.
In contemporary context the difficulties of making sense of social ambiguity becomes one of the most important appeals for seeking the psychological help. This grounds the importance of studying the mechanism underlying the quality of mentalization and its individual variations.
The objective of the study was to find empirical relations between the quality of mentalization and its cognitive, emotional and expressive mediating factors.
(1) The Adult Attachment Interview, scored using Social Cognition and Object Relations-Global rating method for mentalization ability. (2) Group embedded figures test. (3) New Tolerance-Intolerance to ambiguity and (4) Toronto alexithymia scale questionnaires. Twenty participants, aged 18-38, looking for psychological consultation, took part in the study.
Correlation analysis suggests positive relation between field-independency and tolerance to ambiguity (r = .47; p < .05). The complexity of representations of the mind positively correlates with the understanding of social causality (r = .92; p < .01). The affective quality of relationships’ representations positively correlates with the ability to emotionally invest into relationships (r = .66; p < .01), and with the understanding of social causality (r = .47; p < .05). The ability of emotional investment into relationships also positively correlates with the understanding of social causality (r = .93; p < .01). There is a negative link between the severity of alexithymia and the presence of long-term relationships with a partner (r = -.53; p < .05).
Mentalization should be understood as a system, with underplaying cognitive, expressive and emotional factors.
The Russian Arctic regions have a significant geographical, historical, and economic connection with the Northern Sea Route (NSR); the successful implementation of Russia’s geo-political and geo-economic strategies in the Arctic is mainly dependent upon the socio-economic situation in these regions. Population migration is a determinant of the current and future labour potential of the supporting regions; compared to natural growth, it has been a key driver of population and an indicator of the quality of human resources. The research herein considered the factors and impacts of migration on the quality of human resources in the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation (AZRF). Russian population census data for 2002 and 2010, and statistical materials were analysed by age and migrant education to characterise the quality of human resources. To identify the causes of migration, the quantitative data analyses were supplemented with results from sociological studies and expert assessments. An index methodology was used to compare the quality of life and human capital development of the Arctic regions. Accordingly, most of the analysed Arctic regions showed high indicators of human development, which were higher than the national average in education, but significantly lower in longevity. Further, most of the Arctic regions occupied lower positions in Russian regional quality of life. It was concluded that the AZRF regions hold high quality of human capital; however, since high-quality living conditions are lacking, they serve as donors of human capital to other parts of the country. These regions would require external labour resources in the near future due to the planned large-scale projects for the development of the NSR, concurrent reduction and ageing of labour resources, and demand changes in the labour market. The government’s socio-economic policies would determine the scale, dynamics, and direction of migration, as well as their impact on the demographics and labour potential of the supporting regions of the NSR.
The COVID-pandemic context is characterized by a global ambiguity, reflecting the unexpected onset of pandemic, unpredictability and amplitude of the related dangers, questionability and the side effects of the policy measures used to protect people.
The development of theoretical framework for understanding variability in the reactions to COVID situation and self-regulatory mechanisms.
Conceptualization and analysis of individual psychotherapy cases in the framework of psychodynamic approach.
Five typical patterns of anxiety, defensive functioning and mentalization structures were identified: Paranoial pattern is marked by flooding with persecutory anxiety, exaggerated subjective uncertainty. reflected in chaotic boundlessness, incoherence, fantasies of hostility, splitting and polarization of self and others. Depressive pattern reflects inability to sustain ambiguity due to deficiency of internal supports, overly dependence on others, conformity, obedience to authority and denial of personal standards and individuality. Noogenic pattern refers to negative affective states, generated by the ambiguity, contradictions and ambivalence of information. The means to regulate it include the lowering of the level of psychical functioning, with cognitive simplification, preference for order, routine and predictability. Transgression pattern suggests maniacal fascination with the dissipation of limits, normative restraints and rules, and the triumph of the narcissistic-perfectionist permissiveness. Constructivity pattern consists of the pleasure from explorations and insights, creation of new meanings, creative reappraisal and reconstruction of ambiguous situations.
The typical patterns of experiencing ambiguity that were singled out may have diagnostic and prognostic significance in evaluating the individual resource potential in situations of COVID related dangers and isolation.
The uncertainty of contemporary social contexts fosters suspiciousness and anaclitic anxieties. In the context of interpersonal relationships this manifests in cognitive distortions and magical thinking, specially in the vulnerable populations.
To study the ability of understanding social causality and its relation to magical thinking and ambiguity intolerance in schizophrenia and controls.
Participants were 40 inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia and 40 controls. Understanding of social causality was measured by corresponding SCORS-S scale for Thematic Apperception Test, Magical thinking was measured by SPQ-74 and intolerance to ambiguity by the New Tolerance-Intolerance to ambiguity questionnaires.
The understanding of social causality was less developed in schizophrenia group (mean values 2.28 and 3.28, p<.001). They manifest omissions of psychological aspects, logical faults and inconsistencies in depicting social relationships. Magical thinking was higher in clinical group (4.32 and 2.33, p<0.001). Two measures were significantly (p<0.05) correlated in both groups. Regression analysis indicates that 37.7% of variance of dependent variable ‘understanding of social causality’ (R2=0,377) was predicted by ‘magical thinking’ (-0,398, p<0,001) and ‘tolerance to ambiguity’ (0,412, p<0,001). The overal level of tolerance of ambiguity was higher in control group (52.2 and 61.0, p<0.002).
Tolerance of ambiguity, being more characteristic for normal population, underlies the understanding of social causality. In contrast, the intolerance to interpersonal ambiguity is related to increment of anxiety, failures in cognitive elaboration of interpersonal relationships and leads to superstition and illogical beliefs. This relationship has a heuristic value for understanding what is happening to vulnerable individuals in the context of current COVID pandemic.
Body attitudes may serve as both vulnerability and protective factors for various forms of emotional and behavioral disorders, including suicidal and self-harm behaviors in adolescent and youth populations. Body Investment Scale (BIS, Orbach & Mikulincer, 1998) is an instrument specially designed to account for body attitudes in suicide assessment.
The study was aimed to provide a preliminary evidence for using the BIS translation in the assessment of suicide risk factors in Russian-speaking student population in Azerbaijan.
The common recommendations for test translation were used. The factor structure, inter-item consistency of scales, and retest reliability were assessed. The participants were 100 students (18-23 years, 40 females, 60 males), 50 of them completed the retest.
The exploratory factor analysis with fixed number of factors reveals a homologous structure to the original BIS scales, explaining 48.2% of variance (in comparison to 55% of original measure). Inter-item reliability coefficients were lower: .989 for Body attitude, .696 for comfort with touch, .65 for Care and .61 for Protection scales. Pearson’s r for retest reliability (in a month) were above 0.9. Three items that could be excluded for enhancing the consistency of scales address physical contact and self-harm issues and might be culturally inappropriate.
BIS is a promising instrument due to its grounded factor structure, but refinement of some items of the Russian translation is desired, as well as further study of applicability for adolescent population. BIS could fill the gap in scarcity of instruments for suicide assessment for Russian speaking population.
Non-compliance is a common problem in diabetes despite of the potentially drastic consequences. The study of the factors of compliance in adolescents with diabetes is not only important due to the possible practical implementations in health care, but also may be threated as a model for understanding the age-specific aspects of compliance behaviours.
The study was aimed to evaluate various, primary family-related, factors contributing to compliance behaviour.
Participants: 71 adolescents (f=44, m=27, age: 13-17) with diabetes mellitus type 1, without insulin pump usage, and their mothers. Instruments: compliance was accessed with MMAS and “Degree of compliance” (for 15-17-olders only) scales. Paternal attitudes were assessed by (1) ADOR questionnaire, yielding scores for: Positive interest, directiveness, hostility, autonomy, inconsistency; (2) Family anxiety analysis questionnaire, with scales: guilt, anxiety, tension. Illness attitudes were assessed with the Concerns of the illness progression model questionnaire. Interview data were used to assess such variables as duration of illness, frequency of therapist consultations y etc.
Stepwise regression analysis suggested the best model for compliance being predicted (R2=.203) by family anxiety (beta=-.406, p<.001), duration of illness (beta=-.218, p<.05) and frequency of consultations (beta=.0212, p<.05). For 15-17-olders only compliance was better predicted (R2=.499) by concerns about illness (beta=.876, p<.001), distraction copings (beta=.501, p=0.001), negative thinking (beta=-.421, p<0.02) and frequency of consultations (beta=.274, p<.05).
Low family anxiety, shorter duration, and more frequent contacts with therapist, as well as productive copings, absence of frequent negative thoughts and fantasies about illness contribute to compliance. Negative emotions hamper compliance instead of fostering it.
The formation of thinking in ontogenesis follows the line of progressive differentiation and integration of the representations of objects, events, and relationships. The same is true for the development of mentalization ability, conceived as a thought process in the area of social interactions.
The purpose of the study was to compare the particularities of thought processes when dealing with different types of material: physical objects (operational thinking) and social situations (mentalization).
40 inpatients with schizotypal personality disorder, 40 inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia and 40 controls took part in the study. The Objects Sorting Test was used to assess operational thinking. The mentalization ability was assessed using two SCOR-S scales for Thematic Apperception Test: Complexity of representations of people and Understanding of social causality.
The results of correlation analysis support the existence of the reverse links between the impairments of operational thinking and both the complexity of representations of people (r=-.36, р<.001) and the understanding of social causality (r=-.38, р<.001). It is supported by the qualitative analysis, where inpatients with thought distortions, characterized by arbitrary generalizations, are inclined to make similar errors in the reasoning about the mental states, ignoring the conventional explanations and relying on their own emotional impression and etc.
The limitations of the operational thinking as reflected in the inability to form adequate generalizations on the basis of socially predefined attributes of meaning are closely related to the ability of differentiation, integration and causal explanation of meaningful aspects or social situations.
As an observation object for this research were taken veterans of local wars with posttraumatic stress disorder. Research materials were based at analysis of representative group, contains of 478 man, who were doing their military service at the areas of local armed conflicts with clinics of posttraumatic stress disorder. The main group contains of 344 man who committed an aggressive crime and passed an examining in Serbsky National Research Center for Social and Forensic psychiatry, Moscow. For the contrast group were taken 134 man, who were under the treatment in military hospitals.
To educate specialty and estimate severity of posttraumatic stress disorder was used the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, IES-R. Reliable difference were received. Clinics of this disorder includes not only intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal, but organic mental disorders also.
This scale was officially accepted in Russian science academy. Intrusion scale contains of such factors as obsessive flashbacks at the influence of stress factors and nightmares. Avoidance scale includes attempts to avoid experience, connected with stress event and reactivity reduce. Symptoms of third scale includes irritability, tension, emotion instability, difficulties of attention concentration. For patients who committed crimes the level of intrusion and hyperarousal was reliably higher. No difference was found at the avoidance. For assessment of aggression risk were created special models, based on subscale IES-R. The results of regression analysis showed the predictors of criminal aggression. The research permits to make prognosis for criminal aggression as a complicated form of posttraumatic stress disorder.
Investigate some properties of albumin binding sites in schizophrenic patients.
Properties of serum albumin binding sites were studied using quenching of fluorescence of probe K-35 (N-carboxyphenylimide of dimethylaminonaphthalic acid) with nitrate anion. Serum samples were collected from 24 schizophrenic patients and 24 healthy volunteers.
In the absence of quencher specific probe fluorescence in patients was 1,4 times higher than in controls. Fluorescent quenching constant for probe bound to albumin was 2,5 L/mol in patients versus 4,6 L/mol in volunteers (p< 0,01). Fluorescent fraction assessable to quenching was significantly lower in patients than in volunteers. Fluorescent decay studies on S-60 synchrotron have revealed in patient's albumin the redistribution between long-lived and short-lived molecules of the probe with increase of the latter. There were found decrease of albumin accessible SH-groups in schizophrenic patients as compared with volunteers.
In schizophrenic patients conformational state of albumin binding sites is significantly disturbed that can lead to changes in protein-ligand interaction and to damage of main albumin functions (transport and detoxification) and aggravation of endotoxicosis.
Wastewater discharge and agricultural activities may pose microbial risks to natural water sources. The impact of different sources can be assessed by water quality modelling. The aim of this study was to use hydrological and hydrodynamic models to illustrate the risk of exposing grazing animals to faecal pollutants in natural water sources, using three zoonotic faecal pathogens as model microbes and fictitious pastures in Sweden as examples. Microbial contamination by manure from fertilisation and grazing was modelled by use of a hydrological model (HYPE) and a hydrodynamic model (MIKE 3 FM), and microbial contamination from human wastewater was modelled by application of both models in a backwards process. The faecal pathogens Salmonella spp., verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (VTEC) and Cryptosporidium parvum were chosen as model organisms. The pathogen loads on arable land and pastures were estimated based on pathogen concentration in cattle faeces, herd prevalence and within-herd prevalence. Contamination from human wastewater discharge was simulated by estimating the number of pathogens required from a fictitious wastewater discharge to reach a concentration high enough to cause infection in cattle using the points on the fictitious pastures as their primary source of drinking water. In the scenarios for pathogens from animal sources, none of the simulated concentrations of salmonella exceeded the concentrations needed to infect adult cattle. For VTEC, most of the simulated concentrations exceeded the concentration needed to infect calves. For C. parvum, all the simulated concentrations exceeded the concentration needed to infect calves. The pathogen loads needed at the release points for human wastewater to achieve infectious doses for cattle were mostly above the potential loads of salmonella and VTEC estimated to be present in a 24-h overflow from a medium-size Swedish wastewater treatment plant, while the required pathogen loads of C. parvum at the release points were below the potential loads of C. parvum in a 24-h wastewater overflow. Most estimates in this study assume a worst-case scenario. Controlling zoonotic infections at herd level prevents environmental contamination and subsequent human exposure. The potential for infection of grazing animals with faecal pathogens has implications for keeping animals on pastures with access to natural water sources. As the infectious dose for most pathogens is more easily reached for calves than for adult animals, and young calves are also the main shedders of C. parvum, keeping young calves on pastures adjacent to natural water sources is best avoided.
The general formula of the amphiboles of this series may be written as NaxMg2(Mg(5-y)Aly,)(Si(8-z)Alz)O22(OH)2, where Mg = Mg + Fe2+ + Mn2+ and Al = Al + Fe3+ + Ti. The individual <T–O> distances are linear functions of their Al content, and the Al content is strongly ordered in the following way: T1B > T1A » T2B » T2A. The <M1-O>, <M2-O> and <M3–O> distances are linear functions of the mean ionic radius of their constituent cations. End-member compositions may be written as follows: A☐Mg2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2O22(OH)2; A☐Mg2(Mg3Al2)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2; ANaMg2Mg5(Si7Al) These compositions define a plane in xyz space across which the data of Schindler et al. (2008), measured on amphiboles from amphibolites, follow a tightly constrained trajectory. Anthophyllite–gedrite amphiboles equilibrated under significantly different P-T conditions (e.g. igneous rocks, contact-metamorphic rocks) follow trends that diverge from this trajectory, with greater Na and Al contents and relatively smaller Al contents. Detailed examination of the local bond topology involving the A and M2 sites indicates that the maximum degree of bond-valence compensation will occur for incorporation of ANa and M2Al in the ratio 4:10, and hence 2.5 ANa = M2Al in these amphiboles. This relation closely fits the data of Schindler et al. (2008), suggesting that the variation in chemical composition in anthophyllite–gedrite amphiboles is strongly constrained by the anion bond-valence requirements of the Pnma amphibole structure. We further suggest that different compositional trends for ortho-amphiboles equilibrated under different P-T conditions are the result of the valence-sum rule operating with (different) bond-lengths characteristic of these P-T conditions.
The crystal structure of mendeleevite-(Ce), (Cs,☐)6(☐,Cs)6(☐,K)6(REE,Ca,☐)6(Si70O175) (H2O,OH,F,D)35, a new mineral from the moraine of the Darai-Pioz glacier, the Alai mountain ridge. Tien-Shan mountains, northern Tajikistan, was solved by direct methods and refined to Ri = 4.15% based on 2274 observed [Fo > 4σ|F|] unique reflections measured with Mo-Kα. radiation on a Bruker PA diffractorneter equipped with a CCD detector. Mendeleevite-(Ce) is cubic, space group Pm3̄, a 21.9148(4) Å, V 10525(1) Å3, Z = 2, Dcalc = 3.066 g/cm3. The empirical formula (electron microprobe) is CS5.94K2.22[(Ce11.35La5.86Nd3.23Pr1.54Sm0.32Gd0.20)Σ22.50(Ca4.68Sr1.00)Σ5.68]Σ28.18 Si70.12O203.17H45.67F6.83, Z = 2, calculated on the basis of 210 (O + F) a.p.f.u., with H2O and OH calculated from structure refinement (OH + F = 17 p.f.u.; H2O = 17.75 p.f.u.).
The structural formula is (Cs4.65☐1.35)Σ6(☐4.71Cs1.29)Σ6(☐3.78K2.22)Σ6﹛[(Ce11.35La5.86Nd3.23 Pr1.54Sm0.32Gd0.20)Σ22.50(Ca4.68Sr1.00)Σ5.68]Σ28.18☐1.82﹜Σ30(Si70O175)[(OH)10.17F6.83]Σ17(H2O)17.75. Simplified and endmember formulae are as follows: (Cs,☐)6(☐,Cs)6(☐,K)6(REE,Ca,☐)30(Si70O175) (H2O,OH,F,☐)35 and Cs6(REE22Ca6)(Si70O175)(OH,F)14(H20)21. The crystal structure of mendeleevite-(Ce) is an intercalation of two independent Si—O radicals and an M framework of (REE,Ca) polyhedra. The Si—O radicals are an (Si140O260)104– framework and an (Si36O90)36– cluster which do not link directly. The M framework is located between the Si—O framework and the Si—O clusters. Interstitial cations occupy two types of cages and channels. Cages I and II are 78 and 22% occupied by Cs. Channels along [100↻] contain K atoms and H2O groups. Mendeleevite-(Ce) has no natural or synthetic structural analogues. Mendeleevite-(Ce) is a framework mineral with large cavities and it has the potential to be used as a model for the synthesis of microporous materials of industrial interest.
Cámaraite — ideally Ba3NaTi4Fe82+(Si2O7)4O4(OH)4F3 — is triclinic, space group C, a = 10.6965(7) Å, b = 13.7861(9) Å, c = 21.478(2) Å, α = 99.345(1)°, β = 92.315(2)°, γ = 89.993(2)°, V = 3122.6(4) Å3, Z = 4, Dcalc. = 4.018 g cm–3, from the Verkhnee Espe alkaline deposit, Akjailyautas Mountains, Kazakhstan, has been solved and refined to R1 5.87% on the basis of 6682 unique reflections (Fo >4σF). The crystal structure of cámaraite can be described as a combination of a TS block and an intermediate (I) block. The TS (titanium silicate) block consists of HOH sheets (H-heteropolyhedral, O-octahedral), and is characterized by a minimal cell based on translation vectors t1 and t2, with t1 ~5.5 and t2 ~7 Å and t1 ^ t2 close to 90°. We describe the crystal structure of cámaraite using a double minimal cell, with 2t1 and 2t2 translations. In the O sheet, there are eight -coordinated MO sites occupied mainly by Fe2+ and Mn, with minor Fe3+, Mg, Zr, Ca and Zn with <MO–ϕ> = 2.185 Å. Eight MO sites give, ideally Fe82+ p.f.u. In the H sheet, there are four -coordinated MH sites occupied almost solely by Ti (Ti = 4 a.p.f.u.), with <MH–ϕ= = 1.963 Å, and eight -coordinated Si sites occupied solely by Si, with <Si—0> = 1.621 Å. The topology of the TS block is as in Group II of the Ti-disilicates (Ti = 2 a.p.f.u. per minimal cell) in the structure hierarchy of Sokolova (2006). There are six peripheral (P) sites, four [8–12]-coordinated Ba-dominant AP sites, giving ideally 3 Ba p.f.u., and two -coordinated Na-dominant BP sites, giving ideally 1 Na p.f.u. There are two I blocks: the I1 block is a layer of Ba atoms (two AP sites); the I2 block is a layer of Ba (two AP sites) and Na atoms (two BP sites). Along c, there are two types of linkage of TS blocks: (1) TS blocks link via AP cations which constitute the I1 block, and (2) TS blocks link via common vertices of MH octahedra (as in astrophyllite-group minerals) and AP and BP cations which constitute the I2 block. Cámaraite is the only mineral of Group II with two types of linkage of TS blocks and two types of I blocks in its structure. The relation of cámaraite to the Group-II minerals is discussed.
Sveinbergeite, Ca(Fe2+6Fe3+)Ti2(Si4O12)2O2(OH)5(H2O)4, is a new astrophyllite-group mineral discovered in a syenite pegmatite at Buer on the Vesteroya peninsula, Sandefjord, Oslo Region, Norway. The mineral occurs in pegmatite cavities as 0.01—0.05 mm thick lamellar (0.2—0.5×5—10 mm) crystals forming rosette-like divergent groups and spherical aggregates, which are covered by brown coatings of iron (and possibly manganese) oxides, associated with magnesiokatophorite, aegirine, microcline, albite. calcite, fluorapatite, molybdenite, galena and a hochelagaite-like mineral. Crystals of sveinbergeite are deep green with a pale green streak and a vitreous and pearly lustre. Sveinbergeite has perfect cleavage on ﹛001﹜ and a Mohs hardness of 3. Its calculated density is 3.152 g/cm3. It is biaxial positive with α 1.745(2), β 1.746(2), γ 1.753(2), 2V(meas.) = 20(3)°. The mineral is pleochroic according to the scheme Z > X ∽ Y : Z is deep green, X and Y are brownish green. Orientation is as follows: X ┴ L (001), Y ᶺ b = 12°, Z = a, elongation positive. Sveinbergeite is triclinic, space group P1̄, a = 5.329(4), b = 11.803(8), c = 11.822(8) Å; α = 101.140(8)°, β = 98.224(8)°, γ = 102.442(8)°; V = 699.0(8) Å3; Z = 1. The nine strongest lines in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern [d in Å(I)(hkl)] are: 11.395(100)(001,010). 2.880(38)(004), 2.640(31)(2̄10,l̄41), 1.643(24)(07̄1,072), 2.492(20)(2l̄l), 1.616(15)(070), 1.573(14)(3̄2̄2), 2.270(13)(1̄3̄4) and 2.757(12)(1̄40,1̄3̄2). Chemical analysis by electron microprobe gave Nb2O5 0.55, TiO2 10.76, ZrO2 0.48, SiO2 34.41, A12O3 0.34, Fe2O3 5.57, FeO 29.39, MnO 1.27, CaO 3.87, MgO 0.52, K2O 0.49, Na2O 0.27, F 0.24, H2O 8.05, O=F -0.10, sum 96.11 wt.%, the amount of H2O was determined from structure refinement, and the valence state of Fe was calculated from structure refinement in accord with Mossbauer spectroscopy. The empirical formula, calculated on the basis of eight (Si + Al) p.f.u., is (Ca0.95Na0.12K0.14)Σ1.21(Fe2+5.65Fe3+0.93Mn0.25Mg0.18)Σ7.01(Ti1.86Nb0.06Zr0.05Fe3+)Σ2 (Si7091Al0.09)Σ8O34.61H12.34F0.17, Z = 1. The infrared spectrum of the mineral contains the following absorption frequencies: 3588, ∽3398 (broad), ∽3204 (broad), 1628, 1069, 1009, 942, 702, 655 and 560 cm–1. The crystal structure of the mineral was solved by direct methods and refined to an R1 index of 21.81%. The main structural unit in the sveinbergeite structure is an HOH layer which is topologically identical to that in the astrophyllite structure. Sveinbergeite differs from all other minerals of the astrophyllite group in the composition and topology of the interstitial A and B sites and linkage of adjacent HOH layers. The mineral is named in honour of Svein Arne Berge (b. 1949), a noted Norwegian amateur mineralogist and collector who was the first to observe and record this mineral from its type locality as a potential new species.
The crystal structure of nechelyustovite, ideally Na4Ba2Mn1.5☐2.5Ti5Nb(Si2O7)4O4(OH)3F(H2O)6, a 5.447(1) Å, b 7.157(1) Å, c 47.259(9) Å, α 95.759(4)°, β 92.136(4)°, γ 89.978(4)°, V 1831.7(4) Å3, space group P, Z = 2, Dcalc. 3.041 g cm–3, from Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia, has been solved and refined to R1 = 13.9% on the basis of 1745 unique reflections (Fo > 15σF). Electron microprobe analysis yielded the empirical formula (H20)6.01, Z = 2, calculated on the basis of 42 (O + F) a.p.f.u., H2O and OH are calculated from structure refinement (H2O = 6 p.f.u.; F + OH = 4 p.f.u.). The crystal structure of nechelyustovite is a combination of a TS (titanium silicate) block and an I (intermediate) block. The TS block consists of HOH sheets (H-heteropolyhedral, O-octahedral). The TS block exhibits linkage and stereochemistry typical for Group III (Ti = 3 a.p.f.u.) of Ti-disilicate minerals: two H sheets connect to the O sheet such that two (Si2O7) groups link to the trans edges of a Ti octahedron of the O sheet. There are two distinct TS blocks of the same topology, TS1 and TS2, that differ in the cations of the O sheet, [(Na1.5Mn1☐0.5)Ti] and [(Na2Mn0.5☐0.5)Ti] (4 a.p.f.u.) respectively. The TS1 and TS2 blocks have two different H sheets, H1,2 and H3,4, where (Si2O7) groups link to - and -coordinated (Ti,Nb) polyhedra respectively. There are three peripheral sites, AP(1—3), occupied mainly by Ba (less Sr and K) at 96, 86 and 26% and one peripheral site AP(4) occupied by Na at 50%. There are two I blocks: the I1 block is a layer of Ba atoms; the I2 block consists of H2O groups and AP(3) atoms. TS blocks alternate with I blocks or link through hydrogen bonds (as in epistolite). There is a sequence of four TS blocks and three I blocks per the c cell parameter: TS2 — I1 — TS1 — I2 — TS1 — I1 — TS2.