To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
There is an increasing demand for gestational surrogacy in current reproductive medicine practice. Infertile couples often engage overseas surrogates, which increases the risk for legal and ethical complications. This book provides clinical guidance on the provision of gestational surrogacy on a worldwide basis, with brief summaries of the legal position within countries where it is offered. This volume provides a comprehensive overview of surrogacy for clinicians, counsellors, attorneys, legislators and anyone interested in reproductive health policy by filling an immediate niche as a resource for those interested in third-party reproductive treatments.
That the zona pellucida (ZP) plays a prominent role in the physiology of some human twinning is an attractive, albeit incompletely proven, medical hypothesis. Indeed, an association has been proposed between manipulation of the ZP and/or native ZP microarchitecture and monozygotic (MZ) twins. Ovulation induction also has been theoretically linked to in vivo ZP alterations facilitating MZ twin development. In vitro fertilization (IVF) relies on necessary (and, in some cases extended) embryo culture techniques potentially creating subtle ZP changes and subsequent MZ twinning. With growing experience in the assisted reproductive technologies and particularly IVF, some preliminary reports have noted an increased frequency of MZ twins after procedures that artificially breach the ZP (i.e., intracytoplasmic sperm injection [ICSI], or ‘assisted hatching’). Such ZP manipulations ostensibly enhance oocyte fertilization or facilitate blastocyst hatching, thus improving pregnancy rates for couples undergoing fertility treatment. Evidence exists both to challenge and support the connection between these phenomena and MZ twins. This report outlines the fundamental embryological processes believed responsible for these conflicting observations; the current literature on the subject of human ZP micro-manipulation and MZ twins is also discussed. Twin Research (2000) 3, 217–223.
While the fertilising spermatozoon supplies the active centre directing the human zygote's first mitotic division, the relative contributions of the sperm head and tail (as well as the importance of the sperm's general structural integrity) to subsequent developmental processes remain incompletely studied. The sperm nucleus contains paternal chromatin necessary for restoration of a diploid genome, but the functional role of the sperm tail (either attached or dissected) in early human embryonic growth is not known. In this investigation using oocytes donated by in vitro fertilisation patients, human oocytes were injected with isolated sperm heads (n = 73), isolated sperm flagella (n = 11) or both (dissected sperm heads + free sperm tails, n = 26). The formation of bipronucleate zygotes was recorded for each method. Among oocytes surviving injection with isolated sperm heads, 44 of 66 (67%) formed two pronuclei. Of oocytes receiving only sperm tails, 2 of 11 (18%) displayed two pronuclei, but a single polar body was evident in both cases. When dissected spermatozoa parts (head + tail) were jointly injected, 12 of 26 (46%) developed two pronuclei. From embryos resulting from each of these three fertilisation regimes, blastomere biopsies were obtained and subjected to multiprobe fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis to detect mosaicism or aneuploidy arising from these experimental treatments. Only embryos with growth sufficient to permit sampling of at least two blastomeres were evaluated, and FISH analysis was successful in 25 of 29 (86%) embryos tested. Of 12 embryos derived from injection of an isolated sperm head, only one was normal diploid; the remaining 11 were mosaic. Both embryos resulting from injection of an unattached sperm tail were mosaic. Of 11 embryos generated from oocyte injection with sperm head + tail segments, 10 (91%) were mosaic and only one was normal diploid. Results from this study show that injection of isolated sperm segments can permit oocyte activation and bipronuclear formation. However, a high rate of mosaicism in human embryos originating from disrupted sperm or sperm components suggests that more than a ‘sum of parts’ is needed for later development. The structural integrity of the intact fertilising spermatozoon appears to contribute to normal human early embryogenesis.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.