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Introduction: Although oral rehydration therapy is recommended for children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) with none to some dehydration, intravenous (IV) rehydration is still commonly administered to these children in high-income countries. IV rehydration is associated with pain, anxiety, and emergency department (ED) revisits in children with AGE. A better understanding of the factors associated with IV rehydration is needed to inform knowledge translation strategies. Methods: This was a planned secondary analysis of the Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC) and Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) randomized, controlled trials of oral probiotics in children with AGE-associated diarrhea. Eligible children were aged 3-48 months and reported > 3 watery stools in a 24-hour period. The primary outcome was administration of IV rehydration at the index ED visit. We used mixed-effects logistic regression model to explore univariable and multivariable relationships between IV rehydration and a priori risk factors. Results: From the parent study sample of 1848 participants, 1846 had data available for analysis: mean (SD) age of 19.1 ± 11.4 months, 45.4% females. 70.2% (1292/1840) vomited within 24 hours of the index ED visit and 34.1% (629/1846) received ondansetron in the ED. 13.0% (240/1846) were administered IV rehydration at the index ED visit, and 3.6% (67/1842) were hospitalized. Multivariable predictors of IV rehydration were Clinical Dehydration Scale (CDS) score [compared to none: mild to moderate (OR: 8.1, CI: 5.5-11.8); severe (OR: 45.9, 95% CI: 20.1-104.7), P < 0.001], ondansetron in the ED (OR: 1.8, CI: 1.2-2.6, P = 0.003), previous healthcare visit for the same illness [compared to no prior visit: prior visit with no IV (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9); prior visit with IV (OR: 10.5, 95% CI: 3.2-34.8), P < 0.001], and country [compared to Canada: US (OR: 4.1, CI: 2.3-7.4, P < 0.001]. Significantly more participants returned to the ED with symptoms of AGE within 3 days if IV fluids were administered at the index visit [30/224 (13.4%) versus 88/1453 (6.1%), P < 0.001]. Conclusion: Higher CDS scores, antiemetic use, previous healthcare visits and country were independent predictors of IV rehydration which was also associated with increased ED revisits. Knowledge translation focused on optimizing the use of antiemetics (i.e. for those with dehydration) and reducing the geographic variation in IV rehydration use may improve the ED experience and reduce ED-revisits.
X-ray, density, refractive index, and optical absorption measurements have been made on metamict Ceylon zircons. The appearance of a previously reported anomalous optical absorption spectrum in low Ceylon zircons has been associated with small particles of cubic or tetragonal zirconium dioxide in a radiation-damaged zircon lattice, in both heated and unheated stones. No evidence of a previously reported second phase was detected in intermediate Ceylon zircons.
Heating experiments provide strong evidence that the transparent green coats on some diamonds from each of many localities are caused by α-particle irradiation after kimberlite injection and subsequent cooling. The natural diamonds with more or less homogeneous transparent green coats, studied in this work, appear to have received doses of at least 5 × 1013−1 × 1014 α.cm−2. For Pre-Cambrian kimberlites, such doses could occur if certain regions of the diatremes contained ⩾20 ppm by weight of equivalent uranium, after kimberlite injection and solidification.
Such considerations lead to the prediction that the radioelement concentrations in the Finsch kimberlite diatreme and the Bellsbank fissure kimberlite are considerably greater than those in the Premier mine, though radioelement segregation could produce the required local concentrations. Some exploratory autoradiographic measurements made on two kimberlite rock samples from Premier and De Beers Mines indicated that the radioelements were apparently distributed on a submicron scale, which would be a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for uniform α-irradiation of diamonds.
Diamonds from various alluvial sources showing green and brown spots arising from much heavier and more localized radiation damage are also discussed.
Low Ceylon zircons showing an optical absorption band at 5200 Å appear to have suffered more radiation damage than other low Ceylon zircons. Very heavy fission-fragment irradiation failed to lower the density of each of two low Ceylon zircons significantly, although the specimens were rendered completely amorphous. Further fission-fragment irradiation experiments indicated that low Ceylon zircons showing a previously reported anomalous absorption spectrum have been heated late in their geological histories.
To produce a lattice expansion readily detectable by conventional X-ray photographic means in α-irradiated diamond, a dose of order 1018α.cm−2 is required. Such a dose could be produced by pitchblende in ∼2 × 108 yr. and a previously reported lattice expansion in a natural diamond could therefore have occurred by long-term contact with a radioactive material. α-particle doses greater than ∼1014 cm−2 produce observable green colouration on the surface of an initially colourless diamond.
Further lines of the anomalous optical absorption spectrum in low metamict zircon have been observed in the infra-red. Low-temperature polarization studies have enabled a clear distinction to be made between lines due to the anomalous spectrum and those due to the normal spectrum of U4+ in zircon. Magnetic circular dichroism measurements showed, for the anomalous spectrum, only contributions due to the mixing of the energy levels by the magnetic field; thus the A spectrum results from singlet → singlet transitions. The anomalous spectrum appears to derive from U4+ incorporated in polycrystalline zirconia.
Shortages of hired labour are leading to greater interest in mechanisation for crop establishment in smallholder agriculture. Due to small field sizes, mechanised planters mounted on four-wheel tractors are not a suitable technology. The Versatile Multi-crop Planter (VMP) was developed for zero tillage (ZT), strip planting (SP) or single pass shallow tillage (SPST) on flat land and for forming and planting on tops of beds, each in a single pass operation, when mounted on a two-wheel tractor (2WT). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the field performance of the VMP in comparison to conventional broadcast seeding and full rotary tillage (2 to 4 passes; called CT) for establishing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), jute (Corchorus olitorius L.), lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus), maize (Zea mays L.), mung bean (Vigna radiata L. R. Wilczek), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in 15 locations of Bangladesh. Plant populations emerging from all single pass operations viz. SP, ZT, and bed planting (BP) were generally satisfactory and in 12 out of 15 experiments plant populations after SP were similar to or greater than after CT. In addition, SP gave comparable or greater plant populations than SPST and BP planting methods. Overall, the SP planting achieved comparable yields and lower costs of establishment than CT. We conclude that effective and reliable planters are now available for sowing a range of crop species on small fields with minimum soil disturbance. This opens up realistic options for the development of mechanised conservation agriculture suited to small field sizes.
Since the 1970s there has been a steady increase in research on candidate ceramic and glass-ceramics for immobilisation of HLW and ILW, both from the aspects of crystal-chemical design and processing technology. The variety of ceramics and glass-ceramics designed for different types of HLW and ILW will be presented, notably those which are problematic for vitrification. Several of these materials are optimally processed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP), a technology which can consolidate calcined intermediate-level and high-level nuclear waste. Thus we are targeting such wastes for development of alternative waste forms. The essential process steps during the HIP cycle will be outlined. Effective consolidation of a wide variety of tailored glass-ceramic and ceramic waste forms has been demonstrated. The principal advantages of the HIP technology include negligible offgas during the high temperature consolidation step, relatively small footprint, and high waste/volume loadings. While it can be argued that the “nuclear waste problem” is essentially solved technically, at least with current regulatory guidelines, different perceptions of the “best” waste form and processing method for a given waste, together with the general current lack of agreed locations for final repositories, or even interim storage sites, create uncertainties.
This paper illustrates the benefits of hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) tailored ceramic waste forms for the immobilisation of Cs and Sr separated from spent nuclear fuel. Experimental data on microstructure and aqueous durability are presented for Cs- and Sr-bearing hollanditerich tailored ceramics prepared with 12-18 wt% waste (on an oxide basis). MCC-1 type leach testing, on the sample containing 12 wt% waste at 90°C for 28 days revealed extremely low normalised 7-28-day Cs and Sr release rates of 0.003 and 0.004 g/m2day respectively.
Geopolymers are made by adding aluminosilicates to concentrated alkali solutions for dissolution and subsequent polymerization to form a solid. They are amorphous to semicrystalline three dimensional aluminosilicate networks. Although they have been used in several applications their widespread use is restricted due to lack of long term durability studies and detailed scientific understanding. Three important tools for the study of geopolymers are transmission electron microscopy (TEM), solid state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) and infra red (IR) spectroscopy.
Cs and Sr are two of the most difficult radionuclides to immobilize and are therefore suitable elements to study in assessing geopolymers as matrices for immobilization of radioactive wastes. In this study Cs or Sr was added to geopolymer samples prepared using fly ash precursors. A commercial metakaolinite geopolymer was studied for comparison.
The geopolymers were mainly amorphous as shown by TEM, whether they were made from fly ash or metakaolinite. In the fly ash geopolymer, Cs preferentially inhabited the amorphous phase over the minor crystalline phases, whereas Sr was shared in both. The MAS NMR showed that Cs is held mostly in the geopolymer structure for both fly ash and metakaolinite geopolymers. The IR spectra showed a slight shift in antisymmetric Si-O-Al stretch band to a lower wavenumber for the fly ash geopolymer, which implies that more Al is incorporated in this geopolymer structure than in the metakaolinite geopolymer.
Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements at ambient temperatures have been made over the near infrared-visible range (5000-25000 cm−1) on polycrystalline ceramic zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7) and perovskite (CaTiO3) samples doped with Pu4+. The Pu concentrations were varied between 0.001 and 0.1 formula units. The Pu ions gave rise to a number of unresolved intraconfigurational f-f electronic absorption bands of a few hundred cm−1 bandwidth. Pu ions were targeted to substitute in the Ca sites as either trivalent or tetravalent species and as tetravalent species in the Zr site of zirconolite by the appropriate choice of charge compensation and firing atmosphere. There was approximate agreement of the Kubelka-Munk absorption intensities with Beer's Law for the different Pu4+ substitution schemes, apart from some “new” bands, attributed to impurities, observed in the most dilute zirconolite sample. No clear spectral differences were evident when Pu4+ was targeted to Ca or Zr sites in zirconolite. Samples prepared in reducing atmospheres with a view to producing Pu3+ were strongly absorbing, leading to suppression of Pu transitions.
Ceramic wasteforms designed to be processed by melting in air has been developed to immobilise Cs-rich wastes. Detailed characterisation electron microscopy is presented on versions of these melted materials which are rich in Cr-, Ni-, Zn or Co- substituted titanate hollandites and which have PCT-B normalised Cs leachate concentrations of < 0.2 g/L. To assist in understanding the general crystal chemistry of titanate hollandites, this study also investigates the solubility limits of Cs in single-phase hollandite BaxCsy(M3+)2x+yTi8–2x-yO16 where M = Cr and BaxCsy(M2+)x+y/2Ti8-x-y/2O16 formulations where M = Zn, Co or Ni.
The dissolution in de-ionized water (DIW) at 90 and 150 °C of Cs and Ba from mechanically polished Cs-doped Ba hollandite samples is essentially congruent. The normalized Ba and Cs release rates were <0.001 g/m2/day after 56 days in DIW at 90 °C, and the Ba normalized release rate of a Cs-free sample was 0.01 g/m2/day after 56 days in DIW at 150 °C. Varying the pH between approximately 2.5 and 12.9 affected only the Ba dissolution rates of hollandite by half an order of magnitude. The dissolution rates of all species decrease with increasing leaching time due to the formation of partly impervious surface coatings of Al- and Ti-rich species. These surface coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, and in some cases by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
The lower limit of the size of the octahedral A4+ ion in the ATi2O6 brannerite structure is just smaller than that of Ce/Pu. Attempts to expand the A ion size beyond that of Th by (a) substituting a Ba ion plus two U5+ ions for three A ions or (b) substituting one Ba plus one hexavalent ion for two A ions did not succeed. Ge, Sn and Zr substitutions in the Ti site of ThTi2O6 do not exceed 0.2 formula unit in ceramic preparations. These and other coupled substitutions in the B site of ThTi2O6 showed that the average B site size could tolerate deviations of < 1%. Ce4+ is unusually stabilised in air atmospheres at temperatures close to the melting point of 1400°C in the A site of brannerite. Lattice parameter data on different endmember ATi2O6 brannerites are given. The lower and upper size limits for the eightfold A ions in the pyrochlore structure are around 0.100 and 0.117 nm respectively. A BaUTi2O7 stoichiometry did not produce a pyrochlore structure, and when fired in either argon or air yielded a mixture of BaUTiO6, whose structure is still uncertain, plus brannerite and rutile.
Objective. This study sought to examine the factors associated with spatial working memory and the use of strategies to impairments in spatial working memory in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The developmental trajectories for spatial working memory in medicated and medication naïve children with ADHD were investigated. In addition, the effect of psychostimulant medication on deficits in spatial working memory was examined.
Method. A cross-sectional study compared performance between 21 psychostimulant medicated children with ADHD, 27 medication naïve children with ADHD and 26 matched control subjects on computerized tests of spatial memory and spatial working memory.
Results. Compared with the controls, performance in medication naïve children with ADHD was significantly worse on the spatial working memory task. There was no difference in performance between the medicated children with ADHD and the control subjects on this same task, despite the ongoing symptoms of ADHD in the former group. The pattern of normal and abnormal performance in the ADHD groups was age-independent.
Conclusions. Deficits in executive functions related to spatial working memory do occur in children with ADHD, although the magnitude of these deficits is not related to the child's age or the level of ADHD symptoms. These deficits were not present in the current sample of children who were receiving psychostimulant medication.
Rb-doped Ba-hollandite and synroc-C samples were prepared for aqueous dissolution studies at 90°C in deionized water using MCC-1 protocols. Small amounts of possibly Rb-bearing BaTiO3, hibonite and alumina accompanied the major Rb-doped (0.1 formula units) hollandite phase. The Rb loadings in the synroc samples ranged from 0.89 to 2.67 wt%. Rb leached at <0.2 g/m2/d from hollandite samples and <0.1g/m2d from synroc, with the values decreasing with increasing dissolution time. The variance between the dissolution rates for the different Rb-doped hollandite and synroc samples is discussed, in terms of Rb-bearing minor phases.