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Supersymmetry is an extension of the successful Standard Model of particle physics; it relies on the principle that fermions and bosons are related by a symmetry, leading to an elegant predictive structure for quantum field theory. This textbook provides a comprehensive and pedagogical introduction to supersymmetry and spinor techniques in quantum field theory. By utilising the two-component spinor formalism for fermions, the authors provide many examples of practical calculations relevant for collider physics signatures, anomalies, and radiative corrections. They present in detail the component field and superspace formulations of supersymmetry and explore related concepts, including the theory of extended Higgs sectors, models of grand unification, and the origin of neutrino masses. Numerous exercises are provided at the end of each chapter. Aimed at graduate students and researchers, this volume provides a clear and unified treatment of theoretical concepts that are at the frontiers of high energy particle physics.
We studied 83 cardiac-surgery patients with nasal S. aureus carriage who received 4 intranasal administrations of XF-73 nasal gel or placebo <24 hours before surgery. One hour before surgery, patients exhibited a S. aureus nasal carriage reduction of 2.5 log10 with XF-73 compared to 0.4 log10 CFU/mL for those who received placebo (95% CI, −2.7 to −1.5; P < .0001).
To develop, implement, and evaluate the effectiveness of a unique centralized surveillance infection prevention (CSIP) program.
Observational quality improvement project.
An integrated academic healthcare system.
The CSIP program comprises senior infection preventionists who are responsible for healthcare-associated infection (HAI) surveillance and reporting, allowing local infection preventionists (LIPs) a greater portion of their time to non-surveillance patient safety activities. Four CSIP team members accrued HAI responsibilities at 8 facilities.
We evaluated the effectiveness of the CSIP program using 4 measures: recovery of LIP time, efficiency of surveillance activities by LIPs and CSIP staff, surveys characterizing LIP perception of their effectiveness in HAI reduction, and nursing leaders’ perception of LIP effectiveness.
The amount of time spent by LIP teams on HAI surveillance was highly variable, while CSIP time commitment and efficiency was steady. Post-CSIP implementation, 76.9% of LIPs agreed that they spend adequate time on inpatient units, compared to 15.4% pre-CSIP; LIPs also reported more time to allot to non-surveillance activities. Nursing leaders reported greater satisfaction with LIP involvement with HAI reduction practices.
CSIP programs are a little-reported strategy to ease burden on LIPs with reallocation of HAI surveillance. The analyses presented here will aid health systems in anticipating the benefit of CSIP programs.
The problem of inverting the total divergence operator is central to finding components of a given conservation law. This might not be taxing for a low-order conservation law of a scalar partial differential equation, but integrable systems have conservation laws of arbitrarily high order that must be found with the aid of computer algebra. Even low-order conservation laws of complex systems can be hard to find and invert. This paper describes a new, efficient approach to the inversion problem. Two main tools are developed: partial Euler operators and partial scalings. These lead to a line integral formula for the inversion of a total derivative and a procedure for inverting a given total divergence concisely.
This paper examined whether distinct life-course trajectories of psychological distress from adolescence to midlife were associated with poorer mental health outcomes during the pandemic.
We present a secondary analysis of two nationally representative British birth cohorts, the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS) and 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70). We used latent variable mixture models to identify pre-pandemic longitudinal trajectories of psychological distress and a modified Poisson model with robust standard errors to estimate associations with psychological distress, life satisfaction and loneliness at different points during the pandemic.
Our analysis identified five distinct pre-pandemic trajectories of psychological distress in both cohorts. All trajectories with prior symptoms of psychological distress irrespective of age of onset, severity and chronicity were associated with a greater relative risk of poorer mental health outcomes during the pandemic and the probability of poorer mental health associated with psychological distress trajectories remained fairly constant. The relationship was not fully attenuated when most recent pre-pandemic psychological distress and other midlife factors were controlled for.
Whilst life-course trajectories with any prior symptoms of psychological distress put individuals at greater risk of poor mental health outcomes during the pandemic, those with chronic and more recent occurrences were at highest risk. In addition, prior poor mental health during the adult life-course may mean individuals are less resilient to shocks, such as pandemics. Our findings show the importance of considering heterogeneous mental health trajectories across the life-course in the general population in addition to population average trends.
The Lake Titicaca Grebe Rollandia microptera is a poorly studied endemic species found in the Lake Titicaca watershed of Peru and Bolivia. Multiple surveys from the early 2000s indicated that the species was suffering a rapid population decline with an unknown cause. At the same time as these surveys, reports emerged that there was an increase in burning of the totora wetlands which are thought to be the primary habitat for the Lake Titicaca Grebe. However, since 2003, no work has been published either on the current population of the Lake Titicaca Grebe, or the extent of the totora wetlands in the Lake Titicaca region. This paper used satellite data to monitor the change in extent of habitat potentially suitable for the Lake Titicaca Grebe to determine whether habitat loss is likely to be a major driver of population declines in this species. We found that the extent of potentially suitable wetland remained stable between 2001 and 2020, though there are more local regional trends of change in extent of totora. We also found that multiple areas exist that might support Lake Titicaca Grebe populations, but where ornithological knowledge is lacking. We suggest no change to the IUCN status of the Lake Titicaca Grebe, but recommend that further fieldwork is required to monitor the species’ current population, especially in previously unstudied but potentially habitable areas.
Three suspected resistant (R1, R2 and R3) corn marigold populations collected from winter cereal fields located in central Greece were studied to confirm and elucidate the mechanisms of resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors and their competitive ability against barley. Whole-plant dose-response assays proved that the three suspected R populations were highly cross-resistant to the ALS inhibitors tribenuron, pyroxsulam + florasulam, and imazamox, while their control with synthetic auxin plus ALS inhibitors co-formulated mixtures was increased in the order of tritosulfuron + dicamba < florasulam + clopyralid < tribenuron + mecoprop-P < florasulam + aminopyralid. The ALS gene sequence revealed a point mutation in 11 plants of the R1, R2, and R3 populations, which resulted in the substitution of Pro-197-Thr or Trp-574-Leu. By contrast, all three sequenced plants of the susceptible (S) population were found with the wild type allele encoding Pro-197 and Trp-574. This is the first report of ALS-inhibitor resistance in corn marigold. The competition study between barley and four densities of the S, R2, or R3 populations indicated similar biomass rates for all three populations, suggesting lack of association between the competitive ability of the R populations and the target-site resistance mechanism, which was also confirmed by the similar biomass reduction rates of barley grown in competition with S or R populations.
We evaluated the added value of infection control-guided, on demand, and locally performed severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomic sequencing to support outbreak investigation and control in acute-care settings.
Design and setting:
This 18-month prospective molecular epidemiology study was conducted at a tertiary-care hospital in Montreal, Canada. When nosocomial transmission was suspected by local infection control, viral genomic sequencing was performed locally for all putative outbreak cases. Molecular and conventional epidemiology data were correlated on a just-in-time basis to improve understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission and reinforce or adapt control measures.
Between April 2020 and October 2021, 6 outbreaks including 59 nosocomial infections (per the epidemiological definition) were investigated. Genomic data supported 7 distinct transmission clusters involving 6 patients and 26 healthcare workers. We identified multiple distinct modes of transmission, which led to reinforcement and adaptation of infection control measures. Molecular epidemiology data also refuted (n = 14) suspected transmission events in favor of community acquired but institutionally clustered cases.
SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequencing can refute or strengthen transmission hypotheses from conventional nosocomial epidemiological investigations, and guide implementation of setting-specific control strategies. Our study represents a template for prospective, on site, outbreak-focused SARS-CoV-2 sequencing. This approach may become increasingly relevant in a COVID-19 endemic state where systematic sequencing within centralized surveillance programs is not available.
Little is known about the effect of ethnicity on the response to antipsychotic medication in patients with schizophrenia.
To determine whether ethnicity moderates the response to antipsychotic medication in patients with schizophrenia, and whether this moderation is independent of confounders.
We analysed 18 short-term, placebo-controlled registration trials of atypical antipsychotic medications in patients with schizophrenia (N = 3880). A two-step, random-effects, individual patient data meta-analysis was applied to establish the moderating effect of ethnicity (White versus Black) on symptom improvement according to the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and on response, defined as >30% BPRS reduction. These analyses were corrected for baseline severity, baseline negative symptoms, age and gender. A conventional meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect size of antipsychotic treatment for each ethnic group separately.
In the complete data-set, 61% of patients were White, 25.6% of patients were Black and 13.4% of patients were of other ethnicities. Ethnicity did not moderate the efficacy of antipsychotic treatment: pooled β-coefficient for the interaction between treatment and ethnic group was −0.582 (95% CI −2.567 to 1.412) for mean BPRS change, with an odds ratio of 0.875 (95% CI 0.510–1.499) for response. These results were not modified by confounders.
Atypical antipsychotic medication is equally effective in both Black and White patients with schizophrenia. In registration trials, White and Black patients were overrepresented relative to other ethnic groups, limiting the generalisability of our findings.
Conservation agriculture-based sustainable intensification (CASI) is gaining prominence as an agricultural pathway to poverty reduction and enhancement of sustainable food systems among government and development actors in the Eastern Gangetic Plains (EGP) of South Asia. Despite substantial investment in research and extension programs and a growing understanding of the agronomic, economic and labor-saving benefits of CASI, uptake remains limited. This study explores farmer experiences and perspectives to establish why farmers choose not to implement CASI systems despite a strong body of recent scientific evidence establishing the benefits of them doing so. Through thematic coding of semi-structured interviews, key constraints are identified, which establishes a narrative that current households' resources are insufficient to enable practice change, alongside limited supporting structures for resource supplementation. Such issues create a dependency on subsidies and outside support, a situation that is likely to impact any farming system change given the low-risk profiles of farmers and their limited resource base. This paper hence sets out broad implications for creating change in smallholder farming systems in order to promote the adoption of sustainable agricultural technologies in resource-poor smallholder contexts, especially with regard to breaking the profound poverty cycles that smallholder farmers find themselves in and which are unlikely to be broken by the current set of technologies promoted to them.
Transposition of great arteries with intact ventricular septum and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (TGA + IVS + LVOTO) is uncommon. We reviewed operations performed in patients with TGA + IVS + LVOTO in the European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association Congenital Database (ECHSA-CD).
All 109 patients with a diagnosis of TGA + IVS + LVOTO in ECHSA-CD who underwent cardiac surgery during a 21-year period (01/2000-02/2021, inclusive) were included. Preoperative variables, operative data, and postoperative outcomes were collected.
These 109 patients underwent 176 operations, including 37 (21.0%) arterial switch operations (ASO), 26 (14.2%) modified Blalock-Taussig-Thomas shunts (MBTTS), 11 (6.2%) Rastelli operations, and 13 (7.3%) other palliative operations (8 superior cavopulmonary anastomosis[es], 4 Fontan, and 1 other palliative procedure). Of 37 patients undergoing ASO, 22 had a concomitant procedure.
There were 68 (38.6%) reoperations, including 11 pacemaker procedures and 8 conduit operations. After a systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt, reoperations included shunt reoperation (n = 4), Rastelli (n = 4), and superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (n = 3).
Overall Operative Mortality was 8.2% (9 deaths), including three following ASO, two following “Nikaidoh, Kawashima, or LV-PA conduit” procedures, and two following Rastelli. Postoperative complications occurred after 36 operations (20.4%). The most common complications were delayed sternal closure (n = 11), postoperative respiratory insufficiency requiring mechanical ventilation >7 days (n = 9), and renal failure requiring temporary dialysis (n = 8).
TGA + IVS + LVOTO is rare (109 patients in ECHSA-CD over 21 years). ASO, MBTTS, and Rastelli are the most common operations performed for TGA + IVS + LVOTO. Larger international studies with long-term follow-up are needed to better define the anatomy of the LVOTO and to determine the optimal surgical strategy.
Heintz & Scott-Phillips propose that the partner choice ecology of our ancestors required Gricean cognitive pragmatics for reputation management, which caused a tendency toward showing and expecting prosociality that subsequently scaffolded language evolution. Here, we suggest a cognitively leaner explanation that is more consistent with comparative data and posits that prosociality and eventually language evolved along with cooperative breeding.
The cornerstone of obesity treatment is behavioural weight management, resulting in significant improvements in cardio-metabolic and psychosocial health. However, there is ongoing concern that dietary interventions used for weight management may precipitate the development of eating disorders. Systematic reviews demonstrate that, while for most participants medically supervised obesity treatment improves risk scores related to eating disorders, a subset of people who undergo obesity treatment may have poor outcomes for eating disorders. This review summarises the background and rationale for the formation of the Eating Disorders In weight-related Therapy (EDIT) Collaboration. The EDIT Collaboration will explore the complex risk factor interactions that precede changes to eating disorder risk following weight management. In this review, we also outline the programme of work and design of studies for the EDIT Collaboration, including expected knowledge gains. The EDIT studies explore risk factors and the interactions between them using individual-level data from international weight management trials. Combining all available data on eating disorder risk from weight management trials will allow sufficient sample size to interrogate our hypothesis: that individuals undertaking weight management interventions will vary in their eating disorder risk profile, on the basis of personal characteristics and intervention strategies available to them. The collaboration includes the integration of health consumers in project development and translation. An important knowledge gain from this project is a comprehensive understanding of the impact of weight management interventions on eating disorder risk.