A survey was conducted in the four regions of Tanga, Morogoro, Coast and Dar es Salaam in eastern Tanzania to determine the distribution and species composition of cereal stemborers and their natural enemies. A total of 22 fields were sampled in Tanga, 28 in Morogoro, 17 in Coast and one in Dar es Salaam. Chilo partellus was found to be the predominant species, accounting for 80 % of all stemborers collected. Busseola fusca, Sesamia calamistis and Chilo orichalcociliellus made up 15,4 and less than 1 % of the stemborers collected respectively. Infestation levels varied with the age of the plants, whereby younger plants were more severely infested (infestation ranging from 20–40 %) than mature plants (infestation ranging from 5–15 %). Two larval parasitoids, Cotesia sesamiae and Cotesia flavipes, were the main natural enemies collected. However, the levels of parasitism of the stemborers were very low. The exotic natural enemy Co. flavipes may have spread from the Kenya coast (where it is established) into eastern Tanzania.