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Adherence to self-management and medication regimens is required to achieve blood glucose control in diabetic patients. Therefore, diabulimia, the deliberate insulin restriction/omission to lose weight, and other disordered eating behaviors (DEBs) or eating disorders (EDs), place these patients at risk of complications.
We aimed to establish the frequency of diabulimia, DEBs and EDs among patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes (T1DM and T2DM) and their association with other clinical features.
A total of 211 insulin-treated diabetic patients (13–55 years old) answered the Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised (DEPS-R), a diabetes-specific screening tool for DEBs, and the Eating Disorders Inventory-3 (EDI-3). SCID-I modified according to DSM-5 criteria was used to diagnose EDs.
At the DEPS-R, 20.8% of the sample scored above the cutoff, more frequently females (P = 0.005), patients with T1DM (P = 0.045), with a diagnosis of ED (P < 0.001), positive to the EDI-3 (P ≤ 0.001), with physical comorbidities (P = 0.003), with HbA1c > 7% (P = 0.020). Combining data from the interview with the results at the DEPS-R, 60.2% of the sample presented diabulimia. Dividing the sample by gender, we found that diabulimic females more frequently used diet pills (P = 0.006), had significantly higher HbA1c (P = 0.019) and STAI-Y1 scores (P = 0.004). Other DEBs comprised dietary restraint (51.8% of the sample), binge eating (42.2%), vomiting (6.2%), diet pills (7.1%) or laxatives (1.9%) or diuretics use (4.3%). Overall, 21.8% of the sample, mostly females (P < 0.001) met criteria for at least one DSM-5 diagnosis of ED.
Diabetic patients, especially women, should be carefully monitored for the presence of diabulimia, BEDs and EDs.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
To date, the genetic and environmental architecture of the dimensions of psychological well-being (PWB) remains unexplored.
PWB of 742 twins aged 23–24 years and enrolled in the Italian Twin Registry was assessed with the three-item version of Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being (SPWB). These scales include items for evaluating the PWB dimensions of self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. A twin design was used to obtain correlations in the PWB dimensions for monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins and to estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to variation and covariation in the dimensions.
Genetic factors explained moderate to substantial proportions of variance in the six SPWB dimensions, with heritability estimates between 37% and 64%. The estimates of genetic correlations were very high (range 0.77–0.99), indicating that genetic factors that influence the expression of the different dimensions of PWB may be shared to a large extent. Non-shared environmental correlations ranged from substantial to high, with the exception of the correlation between autonomy and the dimensions of purpose in life, self-acceptance and personal growth.
This study presents a twin analysis of PWB measured by the SPWB dimensions; it was found that both genes and non-shared environment play a role in individual differences. The genetic and non-shared environmental correlations between SPWB dimensions suggest that common underlying genetic and non-shared environmental factors influence the expression of the different facets of PWB.
In 1989–91 anti-measles vaccination campaigns were conducted
in several Italian regions to
vaccinate all children aged between 13 months and 10–12 years without
a history of measles or
measles vaccination. This study was conducted to evaluate serological status
after the mass
vaccination campaigns. In 1994, capillary blood samples were collected
from randomly selected
children, aged 2–14 years, living in 13 local health units. Antibody
titres were determined by
ELISA. Blood spot samples were analysed for 4114 (75·6%) of 5440
selected children. Among
the 835 that reported measles before 1990, 806 (96·5%) were immune
and of the 2798
vaccinated, 2665 (95·2%) were immune. The Edmoston–Zagreb
(E–Z) strain vaccine was
associated with a lower level of immunity than the Schwarz (SW) strain.
A history of measles
identified almost all immune children. Vaccination with the SW strain conferred
immunity (at least 5 years) in 98% of vaccinees. The strategy was able
to unite natural and
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