To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with poorer cognitive function in older adults. Although understudied in middle-aged adults, the relationship between alcohol and cognition may also be influenced by genetics such as the apolipoprotein (ApoE) ε4 allele, a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. We examined the relationship between alcohol consumption, ApoE genotype, and cognition in middle-aged adults and hypothesized that light and/or moderate drinkers (≤2 drinks per day) would show better cognitive performance than heavy drinkers or non-drinkers. Additionally, we hypothesized that the association between alcohol use and cognitive function would differ by ApoE genotype (ε4+ vs. ε4−).
Participants were 1266 men from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA; M age = 56; range 51–60) who completed a neuropsychological battery assessing seven cognitive abilities: general cognitive ability (GCA), episodic memory, processing speed, executive function, abstract reasoning, verbal fluency, and visuospatial ability. Alcohol consumption was categorized into five groups: never, former, light, moderate, and heavy.
In fully adjusted models, there was no significant main effect of alcohol consumption on cognitive functions. However, there was a significant interaction between alcohol consumption and ApoE ε4 status for GCA and episodic memory, such that the relationship of alcohol consumption and cognition was stronger in ε4 carriers. The ε4+ heavy drinking subgroup had the poorest GCA and episodic memory.
Presence of the ε4 allele may increase vulnerability to the deleterious effects of heavy alcohol consumption. Beneficial effects of light or moderate alcohol consumption were not observed.
Introduction: Trauma care is highly complex and prone to medical errors. Accordingly, several studies have identified adverse events and conditions leading to potentially preventable or preventable deaths. Depending on the availability of specialized trauma care and the trauma system organization, between 10 and 30% of trauma-related deaths worldwide could be preventable if optimal care was promptly delivered. This narrative review aims to identify the main determinants and areas for improvements associated with potentially preventable trauma mortality. Methods: A literature review was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1990 to a maximum of 6 months before submission for publication. Experimental or observational studies that have assessed determinants and areas for improvements that are associated with trauma death preventability were considered for inclusion. Two researchers independently selected eligible studies and extracted the relevant data. The main areas for improvements were classified using the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations patient event taxonomy. No statistical analyses were performed given the data heterogeneity. Results: From the 3647 individual titles obtained by the search strategy, a total of 37 studies were included. Each study included between 72 and 35311 trauma patients who had sustained mostly blunt trauma, frequently following a fall or a motor vehicle accident. Preventability assessment was performed for 17 to 2081 patients using either a single expert assessment (n = 2, 5,4%) or an expert panel review (n = 35, 94.6%). The definition of preventability and the taxonomy used varied greatly between the studies. The rate of potentially preventable or preventable death ranged from 2.4% to 76.5%. The most frequently reported areas for improvement were treatment delay, diagnosis accuracy to avoid missed or incorrect diagnosis and adverse events associated with the initial procedures performed. The risk of bias of the included studies was high for 32 studies because of the retrospective design and the panel review preventability assessment. Conclusion: Deaths occurring after a trauma remain often preventable. Included studies have used unstandardized definitions of a preventable death and various methodologies to perform the preventability assessment. The proportion of preventable or potentially preventable death reported in each study ranged from 2.4% to 76.5%. Delayed treatment, missed or incorrect initial diagnosis and adverse events following a procedure were commonly associated with preventable trauma deaths and could be targeted to develop quality improvement and monitoring projects.
The presentation aims at summarizing current knowledge about sleep in children and adolescents and at describing possible factors influencing their sleep.
For preschoolers, there is evidence that objectively assessed (sleep-EEG, actigraphy) poor sleep is associated with increased endocrine activity; this is to say, with increased morning cortisol secretion, an associative pattern observed so far only in adults. Furthermore, poor sleep and increased cortisol secretion are associated with emotional and behavioral difficulties.
During life span, notable changes occur with respect to sleep quantity and quality. Compared to childhood, in adolescence, three prominent changes occur: First, sleep quantity declines from about 10 hours at 10 years of age to between 6.5 and 8.5 hours in older adolescents. Second, a marked shift towards a longer sleep duration and later bed time from school nights to weekend nights is observable. Third, daytime sleepiness (20%) and insomnia symptoms (25%) are common among adolescents.
Among a variety of factors affecting adolescents’ sleep, we could show that negative parenting styles unfavorably influenced adolescents’ sleep quality, suggesting that even 18 years old adolescents may be far away from been emotionally independent from their parents. Furthermore, the so-called weekend-shift was correlated with increased sleepiness during the week, suggesting that irregular sleep schedules may negatively influence sleep quality and daytime functioning.
Last, if compared to healthy controls, children and adolescents after cleft lip and palate (CLP) repair were not at risk reporting sleep difficulties; rather, irrespective of the presence of CLP, sleep was affected by psychological strain.
Sleep regulation is closely associated to HPA activity. Alterations in both systems may be precursors of psychiatric disorders like depression even at an early stage of development. So far the impact of microstructure in sleep regulation like sleep spindles is unknown. In recent studies, sleep spindles have been linked to efficient cortical-subcortical connectivity and cognitive abilities especially during neurodevelopment.
Sleep spindles in kindergarten children were analyzed and related to sleep regulation and HPA axis functioning.
Patients and Methods: Nine five-year old kindergarten children were enrolled in a cross-sectional examination of HPA system activity assessed by saliva cortisol measurements (morning cortisol after awakening) and sleep regulation investigated by sleep EEG-monitoring. Sleep EEG spindles were visually scored and were put into relation to macrostructural sleep and HPA activity parameters.
Sleep spindles were correlated to basal morning cortisol secretion (AUC basal) (curvilinear r = .83, p = .01), though were negatively correlated to cortisol increase (AUC netto) after awakening (r = -.77, p < .05). Though not statistically significant but by trend, spindle density (i.e. number of spindles per hour of stage 2 -sleep) is negatively correlated to REM density (r = - .57, p = .11), as increase of awakening cortisol was associated to REM density by trend (r = .63, p = .07).
Not only sleep continuation parameters as reported before but also sleep microstructure reflected by sleep spindles may be associated to sleep regulation and HPA system functioning.
Frowning expresses negative emotions like anger, fear, and sadness. According to the facial feedback hypothesis, suppression of frowning will also diminish the corresponding negative emotions. Hence, mood improvement has been observed in patients who underwent treatment of glabellar frown lines with botulinum neurotoxin. This observation suggests the possibility that the intervention may be employed for the management of psychiatric disorders associated with negative emotions. Preliminary data from an open case series indicate that the intervention might improve the symptoms of depression.
Aims & objectives
To test whether an onabotulinumtoxinA injection into the glabellar region is benefical as an adjunctive treatment of major depression within a clinical trial.
We used a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study design (n = 30; ClinicalTrials.gov, number, NCT00934687).
We show that a single onabotulinumtoxinA treatment shortly leads to a strong and sustained improvement in partly chronic major depression that did not respond sufficiently to previous treatment. As for the primary end-point, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) six weeks after treatment compared to baseline, scores of onabotulinumtoxinA recipients showed 37.9% (8.34 points) more improvement than those of placebo-treated participants (F = 12.30, p = 0.002, η2 = 0.31, d = 1.28).
Our findings support the concept that the facial musculature not only expresses, but also regulates, mood states. As it stands, treatment of glabellar frown lines with botulinum neurotoxin can be considered for depressed patients with the objective of inducing mood-lifting effects.
A dimensional approach in psychiatry strives to identify neurobiological signatures of core (dys)functions such as responses to emotional stimuli across nosological boundaries.
We compared responses to emotional stimuli between major psychiatric disorders and investigated whether there is a psychopathological correlate irrespective of diagnostic group.
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the functional correlates of responses to unexpected pleasant and aversive emotional pictures in n=175 subjects suffering from alcohol dependence (n=29), schizophrenia (n=37), major depressive disorder (MDD; n=25), bipolar disorder (acute manic episode; n=12), panic disorder (n=12) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n=20) and in healthy controls (n=40). The level of anxiety was measured in all diagnostic groups with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and severity of depressive mood was measured with Beck's depressions inventory in all diagnostic groups with the exception of bipolar patients.
Over all diagnostic groups, a significant activation of BA10 was observed during the presentation of unexpected pleasant pictures, whereas a significant activation of the left amygdala and left insula was found during the presentation of unexpected aversive pictures. We did not find significant effects of group, nor a correlation of neuronal activation with depressed mood or anxiety.
In spite of reported alterations in emotion processing in different psychiatric diseases, responses to emotional pictures did not differ across nosological boundaries in our study. However, a dimensional approach that targets e.g. personality traits or basic learning mechanisms and their neuropsychological correlates across traditional disease categories may be more promising.
Studies investigating indicators of recovery from schizophrenia yielded two concepts of recovery. The first is the reduction of psychiatric symptoms and functional disabilities (‘clinical recovery’), while the second describes the individual adaptation process to the threat posed to the individual sense of self by the disorder and its negative consequences (‘personal recovery’). Evidence suggests that both perceptions contribute substantially to the understanding of recovery and require specific assessment and therapy. While current reviews of measures of clinical recovery exist, measures of personal recovery have yet to be investigated. Considering the steadily growing literature on recovery, this article gives an update about existing measures assessing personal recovery.
A literature search for instruments was performed using Medline, Embase, PsycINFO&PSYNDEXPlus, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria were: (1) quantitative self-report measures; (2) specifically developed for adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder or at least applied to individuals suffering from severe mental illness; (3) empirically tested psychometric properties and/or published in a peer-reviewed, English-language journal. Instruments were evaluated with regard to psychometric properties (validity and reliability) and issues of application (user and administrator friendliness, translations).
Thirteen instruments met the inclusion criteria. They were individually described and finally summarized in a table reflecting the pros and cons of each instrument. This may enable the reader to make an evidence-based choice for a questionnaire for a specific application.
The Recovery Assessment Scale is possibly the best currently available measure of personal recovery when all evaluation criteria are included. However, the ratings listed in the current paper depended on the availability of information and the quality of available reports of previous assessment of the measurement properties. Considering the significant amount of information lacking and inconsistent findings, further research on the reviewed measures is perhaps more important than the development of new measures of personal recovery.
Alcohol addiction is assumed to reflect the endpoint of a series of transitions: from initial alcohol intake that causes hedonic feelings, through loss of control over this behaviour, such that it becomes compulsive. Alcohol dependent patients are dominated by their addiction despite the negative consequences and experience other stimuli as providing little reward. Still, some patients manage to abstain from alcohol, whereas others relapse quiet often. Two recent studies (Beck et al., 2012; Charlet et al., 2013) could show that relapsers not only display greater atrophy in limbic and prefrontal areas, but also seem to have attenuated functional connectivity of these areas during cue-reactivity and emotional tasks. It has been proposed that habitual stimulus-triggered responses result in the compulsive nature of alcohol consumption (Everitt and Robbins, 2005), the formation of these inflexible stimulus-response associations being described as habit-based learning which is commonly seen as the counterpart of outcome-directed actions, so called goal-directed learning. Our current research project therefore aims to comprehensively assess how learning alterations might contribute to the assignment of aberrantly high value in the development and recurrence of alcoholism. The project compares alcohol-dependent patients to healthy controls on a battery of tasks assessing Pavlovian, habitual and goal-directed reward-dependent learning behaviourally and with functional MRI. We are going to report preliminary results of our ongoing research.
Despite the large scientific debate concerning potentially stigmatizing effects of informing an individual about being in an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis, studies investigating this topic are rare and quantitative assessment of this kind of stigmatization does not exist so far.
This study presents first results regarding potentially helpful or stigmatizing effects of being informed about an ARMS assessed with a newly developed quantitative self-rating (FePsy-Stigma questionnaire).
Forty ARMS patients participating in the prospective Basel Early Detection of Psychosis (FePsy) study as well as patients clinically assessed in the early detection service of the Psychiatric Services of Solothurn, completed the FePsy-Stigma questionnaire during their follow-up assessments at least six months after they had been informed about their increased risk of developing psychosis. The questionnaire was constructed based on a previous qualitative study and on adapted versions of formerly used instruments for assessing stigma in mental health (Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, Personal Beliefs and Experiences Questionnaire).
Stigmatization appeared to be low overall except for social withdrawal due to suspected stigma. Stigma resistance, stereotype awareness and expected discrimination scored considerably higher than actually experienced discrimination, alienation and stereotype endorsement.
The results suggest that early detection services help individuals cope with symptoms and build certain resilience toward potential stigmatization, rather than enhancing or causing the latter. In line with previous studies, our results indicate that there is a considerable difference between expected and actually experienced discrimination as well as between stereotype awareness and stereotype endorsement.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic disorder caused by a microdeletion on chromosome 22q11.2 and associated with an increased risk for psychosis. A dysfunctional motivational reward system is thought to be one of the salient features in psychosis caused by abnormal dopamine functioning. It is unknown whether patients with 22q11DS have a dysfunctional reward system.
This study aims to investigate reward learning in 22q11DS. The study included 10 adults with 22q11DS (age: 33.1 years, 60% female) and 10 age-gender-matched healthy controls (HC, age: 39.7 years, 60% female). A single infusion 18F-fallypride PET scan was acquired during which all subjects performed a version of the learning phase of the Probabilistic Stimulus Selection Task for reward learning (RL), modified to deliver social feedback.
IQ-scores were significantly lower in the 22q11DS group (P < .001) compared to HC. The 22q11DS group both earned significantly less money (P < .05) and performed worse during the RL-task (P < .05) than HC. However, the learning curve for the RL-task was the same for both groups. IQ-scores were a significant positive predictor for earnings (P < .05) and performance (P < .05), but not for the learning curve.
These preliminary results indicate that people with 22q11DS are capable of learning at the same speed as HC, however they are less susceptible for reward than HC because their overall performance during RL is worse than HC. This lower reward sensitivity could be a result of haplo-insufficiency of COMT in 22q11DS and consequently abnormal prefrontal dopamine functioning.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Alcohol relapse is often occurring to regulate negative affect during withdrawal. On the neurobiological level, alcoholism is associated with gray matter (GM) abnormalities in regions that regulate emotional experience such as the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). However, no study to our knowledge has investigated the neurobiological unpinning of affect in alcoholism at early withdrawal and the associations of OFC volume with long-term relapse risk.
One hundred and eighty-two participants were included, 95 recently detoxified alcohol dependent patients (ADP) and 87 healthy controls (HC). We measured affective states using the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS). We collected T1-weighted brain structural images and performed Voxel-based morphometry (VBM).
Findings revealed GM volume decrease in alcoholics in the prefrontal cortex (including medial OFC), anterior cingulate gyrus, and insula. GM volume in the medial OFC was positively associated with NA in the ADP group. Cox regression analysis predicted that risk to heavy relapse at 6 months increases with decreased GM volume in the medial OFC.
Negative affect during alcohol withdrawal was positively associated with OFC volume. What is more, increased GM volume in the OFC also moderated risk to heavy relapse at 6 months. Reduced GM in the OFC poses as risk to recovery from alcohol dependence and provides valuable insights into transient negative affect states during withdrawal that can trigger relapse. Implications exist for therapeutic interventions signifying the OFC as a neurobiological marker to relapse and could explain the inability of ADP to regulate internal negative affective states.
The protein brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a major contributor to neuronal plasticity. There is numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that accordingly a lack of neurotrophic support causes depression. The use of serum BDNF concentration as a potential indicator of brain alteration is justified through extensive evidence. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia, since we could show that reduced levels of serum BDNF are correlated with sleep impairment in control subjects, while partial sleep deprivation was able to induce a fast increase in serum BDNF levels in depressed patients. Using a bi-directional stress model as an explanation approach, we propose the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the HPA system leading in the long term to sleep disturbance and decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute sleep deprivation, can be used as therapeutical intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial sleep deprivation (PSD) induced a very fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Moreover, we revealed that stress experience and subjective sleep perception interact with each other and affect serum BDNF levels. We identified sleep as a mediator of the association between stress experience and serum BDNF levels.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In the growing research field of early psychosis detection in patients with an at risk mental state (ARMS), most studies focus on the transition to frank psychosis. However, the majority of ARMS patients do not go on to develop frank psychosis and reported transition rates are declining. Little is known about the long-term outcome of these non-transitioned patients (ARMS-NT).
To investigate in preliminary analyses the long-term outcome of ARMS-NT patients with respect to persistence of ARMS signs and symptoms and the rates of late psychotic transition.
The ongoing study “FePsy-BHS-NT” follows up ARMS-NT without transition during at least the first two years for up to 15 years after their initial assessment. ARMS status is ascertained with the Basel Screening Instrument for Psychosis (BSIP). ARMS remission is defined as the absence of attenuated psychotic symptoms or brief limited intermittent psychotic symptoms for at least 12 consecutive months.
In this preliminary sample of 51 ARMS-NT, the majority of patients (70.6%) have remitted from their at risk mental state, 13.7% remain at risk and 15.7% have made a late psychotic transition during the course of long-term follow up (median = 5.75, range 4–11 years after initial assessment).
The considerable rates of ARMS persistence and late psychotic transition indicate that longer follow-up durations than commonly recommended should be contemplated in ARMS patients. Potential predictors of favorable long-term clinical outcome, as well as psychosocial, neurocognitive and other outcomes of ARMS-NT patients will be further evaluated in the present study.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The aim of the Avera Twin Register (ATR) is to establish a prospective longitudinal repository of twins, multiples, siblings and family members’ biological samples to study environmental and genetic influences on health and disease. Also, it is our intention to contribute to international genome-wide association study (GWAS) twin consortia when appropriate sample size is achieved within the ATR. The ATR is young compared with existing registers and continues to collect a longitudinal repository of biological specimens, survey data and health information. Data and biological specimens were originally collected via face-to-face appointments or the postal department and consisted of paper-informed consents and questionnaires. Enrollment of the ATR began on May 18, 2016 and is located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, a rural and frontier area in the Central United States with a regional population of approximately 880,000. The original target area for the ATR was South Dakota and the four surrounding states: Minnesota, Iowa, North Dakota and Nebraska. The ATR has found a need to expand that area based on twin and multiple siblings who live in various areas surrounding these states. A description of the state of the ATR today and its transition to online data collection and informed consent will be presented. The ATR collects longitudinal data on lifestyle, including diet and activity levels, aging, plus complex traits and diseases. All twins and multiples participating in the ATR are genotyped on the Illumina Global Screening Array and receive zygosity results.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
Introduction: Prompt defibrillation is critical during paediatric cardiac arrest. The main objective of this systematic review was to determine the initial defibrillation energy dose for ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (pVT) that is associated with sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during paediatric cardiac arrest. Associations between initial defibrillation energy dose with any ROSC, survival and defibrillation-induced complications were also assessed. Methods: A systematic review was performed using four databases (Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library) (PROSPERO: CRD42016036734). Human studies (cohort studies or controlled trials) and animal model studies (controlled trials) of pediatric cardiac arrest involving assessment of external defibrillation energy dosing were considered. The primary outcome was sustained ROSC. Two researchers independently reviewed all the titles and abstracts of the retrieved citations, selected the studies and extracted the data using a standardized template. Risk of bias of human non-randomised studies were assessed using the ROBIN-I tool (formerly ACROBAT-NRSI) tool proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration group. Results: The search strategy identified 14,471 citations of which 232 manuscripts were reviewed. Ten human and 10 animal model studies met the inclusion criteria. Human studies were prospective (n = 6) or retrospective (n = 4) cohort studies and included between 11 and 266 patients (median = 46 patients). Sustained ROSC rates ranged from 0 to 61% (n = 7). No studies reported a statistically significant association between the initial defibrillation energy dose and the rate of sustained ROSC (n = 7) or survival (n = 6). No human studies reported defibrillation-induced complications. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to clinical heterogeneity. The overall risk of bias was moderate. All animal studies were randomized controlled trials with 8 and 52 (median = 27) piglets. ROSC was frequently achieved (more than 85%) with energy dose ranging from 2 to 7 joules/kg (n = 7). The defibrillation threshold varied according to the body weight and appears to be higher in infant models. Conclusion: Defibrillation energy doses and thresholds varied according to the body weight and trended higher for infants. No definitive association between initial defibrillation doses and the outcomes of sustained ROSC or survival could be demonstrated.
A better understanding of the dynamics of different particulate organic matter (OM) pools in the coastal carbon budget is a key issue for quantifying the role of the coastal ocean in the global carbon cycle. To elucidate the benthic component of this carbon cycle at the land-sea interface, we investigated the carbon isotope signatures (δ13C and ∆14C) in the sediment pore waters dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in addition to the sediment OM to constrain the origin of the OM mineralized in sediments. The study site is located at the outlet of the Rhône River (Mediterranean Sea), which was chosen because this river is one of the most nuclearized rivers in Europe and nuclear 14C can serve as a tracer to follow the fate of the OM discharged by the river to the coastal sea. The ∆14C results found in the pore waters DIC show a general offset between buried and mineralized OM following a preferential mineralization model of young and fresh particles. For example, we found that the sediment OM has values with a mean ∆14C=–33‰ at sampling stations near the river mouth whereas enriched ∆14C values around +523‰ and +667‰ respectively were found for the pore waters DIC. This indicates complete mineralization of a riverine fraction of OM enriched in 14C in the river conduit during in-stream photosynthesis. In shelf sediments, the ∆14C of pore waters DIC is slightly enriched (+57‰) with sediment OM reaching –570‰. A mixing model shows that particles mineralized near the river mouth are certainly of riverine phytoplanktonic origin whereas OM mineralized on the shelf is of marine origin. This work highlights the fact that pore waters provide additional information compared to sediments alone and it seems essential to work on both pools to study the carbon budget in river prodelta.
Past empirical research into the history of racially motivated mob violence in the American South has relied almost exclusively on the record of completed lynchings. In this article, we propose that a better definition of “racialized terrorism” would also include the record of lynching threats. Using a newly available confirmed inventory of lynching threats for 11 Southern states from 1880 to 1929, we demonstrate that the total quantum of racialized terrorism nearly doubles when completed lynchings and lynching threats are combined, with some states and decades affected more than others. Parallel analyses suggest that previous conclusions regarding important environmental predictors of Southern mob violence, such as agricultural specialty, political party strength, and racial population composition, are robust to an expansion of racialized terrorism to include threatened lynchings. However, sufficient differences are found between the predictors of completed and threatened lynchings to suggest the need for future researchers to consider broadening the measurement of racialized terrorism.
Objective: The human gut microbiota has been demonstrated to be associated with a number of host phenotypes, including obesity and a number of obesity-associated phenotypes. This study is aimed at further understanding and describing the relationship between the gut microbiota and obesity-associated measurements obtained from human participants. Subjects/Methods: Here, we utilize genetically informative study designs, including a four-corners design (extremes of genetic risk for BMI and of observed BMI; N = 50) and the BMI monozygotic (MZ) discordant twin pair design (N = 30), in order to help delineate the role of host genetics and the gut microbiota in the development of obesity. Results: Our results highlight a negative association between BMI and alpha diversity of the gut microbiota. The low genetic risk/high BMI group of individuals had a lower gut microbiota alpha diversity when compared to the other three groups. Although the difference in alpha diversity between the lean and heavy groups of the BMI-discordant MZ twin design did not achieve significance, this difference was observed to be in the expected direction, with the heavier participants having a lower average alpha diversity. We have also identified nine OTUs observed to be associated with either a leaner or heavier phenotype, with enrichment for OTUs classified to the Ruminococcaceae and Oxalobacteraceae taxonomic families. Conclusion: Our study presents evidence of a relationship between BMI and alpha diversity of the gut microbiota. In addition to these findings, a number of OTUs were found to be significantly associated with host BMI. These findings may highlight separate subtypes of obesity, one driven by genetic factors, the other more heavily influenced by environmental factors.
In this paper, first results comparing modified Longin and ninhydrin collagen extraction methodologies are presented. The goal of this study is to investigate the bones of several species with different ages, preservation conditions, and collagen contents to determine the most suitable preparation method. Different types of samples are used such as VIRI samples, previously dated bones, and background samples. Each bone has undergone elemental analysis, infrared analysis, and 14C measurement. The results are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each preparation method are discussed. In general, results obtained by the two methods are in accordance with the consensus value for 2σ uncertainty. For VIRI I and a mammoth bone, the ninhydrin preparation gives, respectively, 8450±70 BP and 14,870±60 BP whereas the modified Longin process gives 8365±45 BP and 14,750±100 BP in agreement with the expected values. From the experimental point of view, the modified Longin process is easier to implement than the ninhydrin protocol. From this approach, we can conclude that the modified Longin process could be preferred in most cases and particularly when the amount of bone is small and the sample is not too contaminated.