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Residual herbicides are routinely applied to control troublesome weeds in pumpkin production. Fluridone and acetochlor, Groups 12 and 15 herbicides, respectively, provide broad-spectrum PRE weed control. Field research was conducted in Virginia and New Jersey to evaluate pumpkin tolerance and weed control to PRE herbicides. Treatments consisted of fomesafen at two rates, ethalfluralin, clomazone, halosulfuron, fluridone, S-metolachlor, acetochlor emulsifiable concentrate (EC), acetochlor microencapsulated (ME), and no herbicide. At one site, fluridone, acetochlor EC, acetochlor ME, and halosulfuron injured pumpkin 81%, 39%, 34%, and 35%, respectively, at 14 d after planting (DAP); crop injury at the second site was 40%, 8%, 19%, and 33%, respectively. Differences in injury between the two sites may have been due to the amount and timing of rainfall after herbicides were applied. Fluridone provided 91% control of ivyleaf morningglory and 100% control of common ragweed at 28 DAP. Acetochlor EC controlled redroot pigweed 100%. Pumpkin treated with S-metolachlor produced the most yield (10,764 fruits ha–1) despite broadcasting over the planted row; labeling requires a directed application to row-middles. A separate study specifically evaluated fluridone applied PRE at 42, 84, 126, 168, 252, 336, and 672 g ai ha–1. Fluridone resulted in pumpkin injury ≥95% when applied at rates of ≥168 g ai ha–1; significant yield loss was noted when the herbicide was applied at rates >42 g ai ha–1. We concluded that fluridone and acetochlor formulations are unacceptable candidates for pumpkin production.
The failure of glyphosate to control all weeds throughout the entire growing season has sometimes prompted growers to use herbicides other than glyphosate on glyphosate-resistant soybean. Field studies were conducted in 1999 and 2000 to investigate potential crop injury by several herbicides in glyphosate-resistant soybean and to determine the relationships between soybean maturity group, planting date, and herbicide treatment on soybean injury, leaf area index (LAI), and yield. Glyphosate-resistant soybean generally recovered from early-season herbicide injury and LAI reductions; however, some treatments reduced yield. Yield reductions were more common in double-crop soybean than in full-season soybean. In full-season soybean, most yield reductions occurred in the early-maturing ‘RT-386’ cultivar. These yield reductions may be attributed to reduced developmental periods associated with early-maturing cultivars and double-crop soybean that often lead to reduced vegetative growth and limited LAI. Reductions in LAI by some herbicide treatments were not necessarily indicative of yield loss. Further yield reductions associated with herbicide applications occurred, although soybean sometimes produced leaf area exceeding the critical LAI level of 3.5 to 4.0, which is the minimum LAI needed for soybean to achieve maximum yield. Therefore, LAI response to herbicide treatments does not always accurately indicate the response of glyphosate-resistant soybean yield to herbicides.
Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 became the predominant circulating strain in the United States during the 2013–2014 influenza season. Little is known about the epidemiology of severe influenza during this season.
A retrospective cohort study of severely ill patients with influenza infection in intensive care units in 33 US hospitals from September 1, 2013, through April 1, 2014, was conducted to determine risk factors for mortality present on intensive care unit admission and to describe patient characteristics, spectrum of disease, management, and outcomes.
A total of 444 adults and 63 children were admitted to an intensive care unit in a study hospital; 93 adults (20.9%) and 4 children (6.3%) died. By logistic regression analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with mortality among adult patients: older age (>65 years, odds ratio, 3.1 [95% CI, 1.4–6.9], P=.006 and 50–64 years, 2.5 [1.3–4.9], P=.007; reference age 18–49 years), male sex (1.9 [1.1–3.3], P=.031), history of malignant tumor with chemotherapy administered within the prior 6 months (12.1 [3.9–37.0], P<.001), and a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (for each increase by 1 in score, 1.3 [1.2–1.4], P<.001).
Risk factors for death among US patients with severe influenza during the 2013–2014 season, when influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 was the predominant circulating strain type, shifted in the first postpandemic season in which it predominated toward those of a more typical epidemic influenza season.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1251–1260
In this study we assessed three technologies for silencing gene expression by RNA interference (RNAi) in the sheep parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. We chose as targets five genes that are essential in Caenorhabditis elegans (mitr-1, pat-12, vha-19, glf-1 and noah-1), orthologues of which are present and expressed in H. contortus, plus four genes previously tested by RNAi in H. contortus (ubiquitin, tubulin, paramyosin, tropomyosin). To introduce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into the nematodes we tested (1) feeding free-living stages of H. contortus with Escherichia coli that express dsRNA targetting the test genes; (2) electroporation of dsRNA into H. contortus eggs or larvae; and (3) soaking adult H. contortus in dsRNA. For each gene tested we observed reduced levels of mRNA in the treated nematodes, except for some electroporation conditions. We did not observe any phenotypic changes in the worms in the electroporation or dsRNA soaking experiments. The feeding method, however, elicited observable changes in the development and viability of larvae for five of the eight genes tested, including the ‘essential’ genes, Hc-pat-12, Hc-vha-19 and Hc-glf-1. We recommend the E. coli feeding method for RNAi in H. contortus and provide recommendations for future research directions for RNAi in this species.
Total energy calculations for Ni-rich ß′-phase NiAl have been performed using the large system multiple scattering (LSMS) method. The large samples used to model the alloys involved up to 128 atoms per cell, and were constructed to have the experimental short range order (SRO) parameters. Both short range ordering and charge transfer effects are automatically taken into account in the calculation. The calculated formation energies of both stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric compounds are in excellent agreement with experiment.
White dwarf stars provide important boundary conditions for the understanding of stellar evolution. An adequate understanding of even these simple stars is impossible without detailed knowledge of their interiors. PG1346+082, an interacting binary white dwarf system, provides a unique opportunity to view the interior of one degenerate as it is brought to light in the accretion disk of the second star as the primary strips material from its less massive companion (see Wood et at. 1987).
PG1346+082 is a photometric variable with a four magnitude variation over a four to five day quasi-period. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the light curve shows a complex, time-dependent structure of harmonics. PG1346+082 exhibits flickering – the signature of mass transfer. The optical spectra of the system contain weak emission features during minimum and broad absorption at all other times. This could be attributed to pressure broadening in the atmosphere of a compact object, or to a combination of pressure broadening and doppler broadening in a disk surrounding the compact accretor. No hydrogen lines are observed and the spectra are dominated by neutral helium. The spectra also display variable asymmetric line profiles.
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