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Six pairs of steers were allowed to choose between two types of floors in a paired choice test. The four floors tested were a fully slatted floor, a fully slatted floor covered with rubber mats, a solid floor with sawdust bedding, and a solid floor with straw bedding. All combinations of floor types were tested and the choices were repeated eight times, using naïve animals. The animals were allowed 17 days to habituate, and on days 18-21 their behaviour was recorded by video for 72 hours. Straw was the most preferred floor type, followed by sawdust, then mats, and finally slats. During a second test period, rubber mats were compared with rubber strips, and no significant preferences were found.
Oder adults have been stereotyped (1), both explicitly and implicitly, as being asexual or naturally lacking sexual desires (2).
The objective of this study is to analyse the perspectives of sexual unwellness (SU) of Portuguese and Slovenian older adults.
A qualitative research was carried out, in which these perceptions were analysed at a cultural level. Methods: The sample of this study consisted of 136 older participants, between 65 and 96 years of age. Participants were of two different nationalities and lived in the community. Participants were interviewed, and all interviews were carried out through the process of literal transcription and subsequent content analysis.
Eight key mutually exclusive themes emerged from the interviews: unavailability of partner; traditional values; body restrictions; low self-esteem and well-being; poor social support; dissatisfaction with physical appearance; pain during sex; and difficulties meeting new people. Unavailability of partner was the most important theme (17.9%) for the studied sample and specifically among Portuguese participants. Conversely, difficulties meeting new people was the least reported theme (6.8%) for the entire sample. For Slovenians traditional values were most relevant with respect to feeling sexually unwell.
Older adults from two different countries reported diverse sexual experiences. Eight mutual-exclusive themes were extensively illustrated. 1.von Humboldt S et al. Sexual expression in old age: How older adults from different cultures express sexually? Sex Res Social Policy. 2020;1-15. 2.von Humboldt S et al. Are older adults satisfied with their sexuality? Outcomes from a cross-cultural study. Educ Gerontol. 2020;46:284-293.
Recurrent acute otitis media is common in children. The preferred treatment measures for recurrent acute otitis media have a mixed evidence base. This study sought to assess baseline practice across ENT departments in England.
A national telephone survey of healthcare staff was conducted. Every ENT centre in England was contacted. A telephone script was used to ask about antibiotic and grommet use and duration in recurrent acute otitis media cases.
Ninety-six centres (74 per cent) provided complete information. Recurrent acute otitis media treatment across England by ENT departments varied. The antibiotic first- and second-line prophylaxis offered varies, with trimethoprim used in 33 centres and 29 centres not offering any antibiotics. The timing or choice about when to use grommets also varies, but 87 centres (91 per cent) offer grommet surgery at one stage.
The treatments received by children in England for recurrent acute otitis media vary by centre; collaborative research in this area is advised.
Immediate facial nerve reconstruction is the standard of care following radical parotidectomy; however, quality of life comparisons with those undergoing limited superficial parotidectomy without facial nerve sacrifice is lacking.
Patients who underwent parotidectomy were contacted to determine quality of life using the University of Washington Quality of Life and Parotidectomy Specific Quality of Life questionnaires. A total of 29 patients (15 in the radical parotidectomy and 14 in the limited superficial parotidectomy groups) completed and returned questionnaires.
Using the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire, similar quality of life was noted in both groups, with the radical parotidectomy group having significantly worse speech and taste scores. Using the Parotidectomy Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire, the radical parotidectomy group reported significantly worse speech, eye symptoms and eating issues.
Those undergoing radical parotidectomy with reconstruction had comparable overall quality of life with the limited superficial parotidectomy group. The Parotidectomy Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire better identified subtle quality of life complaints. Eye and oral symptoms remain problematic, necessitating better rehabilitation and more focused reconstructive efforts.
We hypothesized that children receiving medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet (MCTKD) experience similar seizure reduction despite lower ketosis compared with classic ketogenic diet (CKD). Children initiating CKD or MCTKD were enrolled in a prospective observational study. Forty-five children completed 6 months of KD (n = 17 MCTKD, n = 28 CKD). The proportion achieving ≥50% seizure reduction was 71% CKD group and 59% MCTKD group; ≥90% reduction was 32% and 36% in CKD and MCTKD groups, respectively. CKD had higher urine ketones (≥8 mmol/L: 79% vs. 36%, p = 0.005). Children receiving MCTKD experience similar seizure control to CKD despite lower urine ketone measures.
Coronavirus disease 2019 personal protective equipment has been reported to affect communication in healthcare settings. This study sought to identify those challenges experimentally.
Bamford–Kowal–Bench speech discrimination in noise performance of healthcare workers was tested under simulated background noise conditions from a variety of hospital environments. Candidates were assessed for ability to interpret speech with and without personal protective equipment, with both normal speech and raised voice.
There was a significant difference in speech discrimination scores between normal and personal protective equipment wearing subjects in operating theatre simulated background noise levels (70 dB).
Wearing personal protective equipment can impact communication in healthcare environments. Efforts should be made to remind staff about this burden and to seek alternative communication paradigms, particularly in operating theatre environments.
Although there is growing interest in mental health problems in university students there is limited understanding of the scope of need and determinants to inform intervention efforts.
To longitudinally examine the extent and persistence of mental health symptoms and the importance of psychosocial and lifestyle factors for student mental health and academic outcomes.
Undergraduates at a Canadian university were invited to complete electronic surveys at entry and completion of their first year. The baseline survey measured important distal and proximal risk factors and the follow-up assessed mental health and well-being. Surveys were linked to academic grades. Multivariable models of risk factors and mental health and academic outcomes were fit and adjusted for confounders.
In 1530 students surveyed at entry to university 28% and 33% screened positive for clinically significant depressive and anxiety symptoms respectively, which increased to 36% and 39% at the completion of first year. Over the academic year, 14% of students reported suicidal thoughts and 1.6% suicide attempts. Moreover, there was persistence and overlap in these mental health outcomes. Modifiable psychosocial and lifestyle factors at entry were associated with positive screens for mental health outcomes at completion of first year, while anxiety and depressive symptoms were associated with lower grades and university well-being.
Clinically significant mental health symptoms are common and persistent among first-year university students and have a negative impact on academic performance and well-being. A comprehensive mental health strategy that includes a whole university approach to prevention and targeted early-intervention measures and associated research is justified.
Background: Since January 1, 2016 2358 people have died from opioid poisoning in Alberta. Buprenorphine/naloxone (bup/nal) is the recommended first line treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) and this treatment can be initiated in emergency departments and urgent care centres (EDs). Aim Statement: This project aims to spread a quality improvement intervention to all 107 adult EDs in Alberta by March 31, 2020. The intervention supports clinicians to initiate bup/nal for eligible individuals and provide rapid referrals to OUD treatment clinics. Measures & Design: Local ED teams were identified (administrators, clinical nurse educators, physicians and, where available, pharmacists and social workers). Local teams were supported by a provincial project team (project manager, consultant, and five physician leads) through a multi-faceted implementation process using provincial order sets, clinician education products, and patient-facing information. We used administrative ED and pharmacy data to track the number of visits where bup/nal was given in ED, and whether discharged patients continued to fill any opioid agonist treatment (OAT) prescription 30 days after their index ED visit. OUD clinics reported the number of referrals received from EDs and the number attending their first appointment. Patient safety event reports were tracked to identify any unintended negative impacts. Evaluation/Results: We report data from May 15, 2018 (program start) to September 31, 2019. Forty-nine EDs (46% of 107) implemented the program and 22 (45% of 49) reported evaluation data. There were 5385 opioid-related visits to reporting ED sites after program adoption. Bup/nal was given during 832 ED visits (663 unique patients): 7 visits in the 1st quarter the program operated, 55 in the 2nd, 74 in the 3rd, 143 in the 4th, 294 in the 5th, and 255 in the 6th. Among 505 unique discharged patients with 30 day follow up data available 319 (63%) continued to fill any OAT prescription after receiving bup/nal in ED. 16 (70%) of 23 community clinics provided data. EDs referred patients to these clinics 440 times, and 236 referrals (54%) attended their first follow-up appointment. Available data may under-report program impact. 5 patient safety events have been reported, with no harm or minimal harm to the patient. Discussion/Impact: Results demonstrate effective spread and uptake of a standardized provincial ED based early medical intervention program for patients who live with OUD.
Excess energy intake is recognised as a strong contributing factor to the global rise of being overweight and obese. The aim of this paper was to investigate if oral sensitivity to complex carbohydrate relates to ad libitum consumption of complex carbohydrate foods in a sample group of female adults. Participants’ ((n 51 females): age 23·0 (sd 0·6) years (range 20·0–41·0 years); excluding restrained eaters) sensitivity towards maltodextrin (oral complex carbohydrate) and glucose (sweet taste) was assessed by measuring detection threshold (DT) and suprathreshold intensity perception (ST). A crossover design was used to assess consumption of two different iso-energetic preload milkshakes and ad libitum milkshakes – (1) glucose-based milkshake, (2) maltodextrin-based milkshake. Ad libitum intake (primary outcome) and eating rate, liking, hunger, fullness and prospective consumption ratings were measured. Participants who were more sensitive towards complex carbohydrate (maltodextrin DT) consumed significantly more maltodextrin-based milkshake in comparison with less-sensitive participants (P = 0·01) and this was independent of liking. Participants who had higher liking for glucose-based milkshake consumed significantly more glucose-based milkshake in comparison with participants with lower hedonic ratings (P = 0·049). The results provide support regarding the role of the oral system sensitivity (potentially taste) to complex carbohydrate and the prospective to overconsume complex carbohydrate-based milkshake in a single sitting.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Background: SMA is a neurodegenerative disease caused by biallelic deletion/mutation of the survival motor neuron (SMN1) gene. In the phase 1 trial (NCT02122952), SMN GRT onasemnogene abeparvovec (AVXS-101) improved outcomes of 15 symptomatic SMA1 patients (3 at a lower dose [cohort 1] and 12 at the proposed therapeutic dose [cohort 2]). This report describes long-term follow-up study design and data from the phase 1 study. Methods: Patients in the phase 1 study could rollover into a long-term follow-up study (NCT03421977). The primary objective is to collect long-term safety data (serious adverse events, hospitalizations, and adverse events of special interest). Annual follow-up will occur for 15 years. Additionally, patient record transfers from local clinician(s) will be requested. Safety assessments include medical history and record review, physical examination, clinical laboratory evaluation, and pulmonary assessments. Efficacy assessments include physical examination to assess developmental milestones. Results: As of September 27, 2018, the oldest patients are 59.2 (cohort 1) and 52.1 (cohort 2) months old and free of permanent ventilation. Preliminary data, including survival and developmental milestones, will be presented. Conclusions: Patients treated with a one-time dose of AVXS-101 continue to gain strength, develop, and achieve new milestones, demonstrating a long-term, durable response.
The kinetics of clay formation in buried paleosols developed from late Quaternary rhyolitic tephra layers near Rotorua, New Zealand, can be described in terms of a combination of parabolic and linear kinetics, reflecting the hydration of glass, and the formation of clay minerals, respectively. Such a model is consistent with the formation of clay minerals showing an Arrhenian temperature dependence and suggests, on the basis of calculated activation energies, that the process of formation of Al-rich allophane (imogolite) is diffusion controlled, whereas the rate of formation of Si-rich allophane is controlled by the chemical processes at the site of reaction.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Little is known about the association of cortical Aβ with depression and anxiety among cognitively normal (CN) elderly persons.
We conducted a cross-sectional study derived from the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging in Olmsted County, Minnesota; involving CN persons aged ≥ 60 years that underwent PiB-PET scans and completed Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Cognitive diagnosis was made by an expert consensus panel. Participants were classified as having abnormal (≥1.4; PiB+) or normal PiB-PET (<1.4; PiB−) using a global cortical to cerebellar ratio. Multi-variable logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) after adjusting for age and sex.
Of 1,038 CN participants (53.1% males), 379 were PiB+. Each one point symptom increase in the BDI (OR = 1.03; 1.00–1.06) and BAI (OR = 1.04; 1.01–1.08) was associated with increased odds of PiB-PET+. The number of participants with BDI > 13 (clinical depression) was greater in the PiB-PET+ than PiB-PET- group but the difference was not significant (OR = 1.42; 0.83–2.43). Similarly, the number of participants with BAI > 10 (clinical anxiety) was greater in the PiB-PET+ than PiB-PET− group but the difference was not significant (OR = 1.77; 0.97–3.22).
As expected, depression and anxiety levels were low in this community-dwelling sample, which likely reduced our statistical power. However, we observed an informative albeit weak association between increased BDI and BAI scores and elevated cortical amyloid deposition. This observation needs to be tested in a longitudinal cohort study.
Risk adjustment is needed to fairly compare central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates between hospitals. Until 2017, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) methodology adjusted CLABSI rates only by type of intensive care unit (ICU). The 2017 CDC models also adjust for hospital size and medical school affiliation. We hypothesized that risk adjustment would be improved by including patient demographics and comorbidities from electronically available hospital discharge codes.
Using a cohort design across 22 hospitals, we analyzed data from ICU patients admitted between January 2012 and December 2013. Demographics and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) discharge codes were obtained for each patient, and CLABSIs were identified by trained infection preventionists. Models adjusting only for ICU type and for ICU type plus patient case mix were built and compared using discrimination and standardized infection ratio (SIR). Hospitals were ranked by SIR for each model to examine and compare the changes in rank.
Overall, 85,849 ICU patients were analyzed and 162 (0.2%) developed CLABSI. The significant variables added to the ICU model were coagulopathy, paralysis, renal failure, malnutrition, and age. The C statistics were 0.55 (95% CI, 0.51–0.59) for the ICU-type model and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.60–0.69) for the ICU-type plus patient case-mix model. When the hospitals were ranked by adjusted SIRs, 10 hospitals (45%) changed rank when comorbidity was added to the ICU-type model.
Our risk-adjustment model for CLABSI using electronically available comorbidities demonstrated better discrimination than did the CDC model. The CDC should strongly consider comorbidity-based risk adjustment to more accurately compare CLABSI rates across hospitals.
To assess the impact of farm management on herd fertility, a survey of 105 beef farms in Northern Ireland was conducted to establish the relationship between management variables and fertility. Each herd's average calving interval (CI) and the proportion of cows with a CI > 450 days (extended calving interval, ECI) was calculated to establish herd fertility. The relationship between each response variable (CI and proportion ECI) and each explanatory variable (respondents’ answers to questionnaire) was examined using univariate linear regression analyses. All response variables found to be associated with the explanatory variables were modelled against each group in turn using a fully automated multivariate stepwise regression algorithm employing the method of forward selection with backward elimination. The optimum 365-day CI and a proportion of 0 cows per hundred calved ECI targets were not widely attained in the current study. The distribution of CI and proportion ECI in the current study suggests more realistic targets would be a 379-day CI and 5 cows per hundred calved with ECI in commercial beef breeding herds. Six management factors were found to be associated with herd fertility: herd vaccination, bull selection, fertility management, breeding female management, perception of extension service (rural education provided by the government) and record keeping. It was found that respondents who vaccinated cows had a reduction of 5 cows per hundred calved in the proportion of cows with ECI, and as the number of vaccines administered to a cow increased, the CI decreased. Regular vaccination of breeding bulls was associated with a 9-day reduction in CI. Bull selection strategy had several associations with herd fertility; most notable was that respondents who used visual selection rather than estimated breeding values (EBVs) to select bulls were found to have a 15-day longer CI and 7 cows per hundred calved higher proportion of cows with ECI. For each 0·01 increase in the proportion of cows served by artificial insemination, CI increased by 0·16 days. Respondents who rated their beef breeding herd fertility as ‘very good’ had lower ECI and CI than those who rated beef breeding herd fertility as poor or satisfactory. Condition scoring of cows at weaning lowered ECI by 5 cows per hundred calved. Those who perceived the extension service to be very useful had the lowest CI and lowest ECI. Respondents who did not keep a record of CI to assess herd fertility had an 11-day longer CI and 6 cows per hundred calved higher proportion ECI than those who did not. In conclusion, the survey found a number of important variables linked to improved fertility including selecting sires based on EBVs and using a robust vaccination programme.
In summer, 2011, we investigated suspected glyphosate-resistant (GR) kochia
in three chem-fallow fields (designated F1, F2, F3, each farmed by a
different grower) in southern Alberta. This study characterizes glyphosate
resistance in those populations, based on data from dose–response
experiments. In a greenhouse experiment, the three populations exhibited a
resistance factor ranging from 4 to 6 based on shoot biomass response
(GR50 ratios), or 5 to 7 based on survival response
(LD50 ratios). Similar results were found in a field
dose–response experiment at Lethbridge, AB, in spring 2012 using the F2
kochia population. In fall 2011, we surveyed 46 fields within a 20-km radius
of the three chem-fallow fields for GR kochia. In the greenhouse,
populations were screened with glyphosate at 900 g ae ha−1. Seven
populations were confirmed as GR, the farthest site located about 13 km from
the three originally confirmed populations. An additional GR population more
than 100 km away was later confirmed. Populations were screened for
acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibitor (thifensulfuron : tribenuron) and
dicamba resistance in the greenhouse, with molecular characterization of
ALS-inhibitor resistance in the F1, F2, and F3 populations. All GR
populations were resistant to the ALS-inhibiting herbicide, but susceptible
to dicamba. ALS-inhibitor resistance in kochia was conferred by
Pro197, Asp376, or Trp574 amino acid
substitutions. Based upon a simple empirical model with a parameter for
selection pressure, calculated from weed relative abundance and glyphosate
efficacy, and a parameter for seedbank longevity, kochia, wild oat, and
green foxtail were the top three weeds, respectively, predicted at risk of
selection for glyphosate resistance in the semiarid Grassland region of the
Canadian prairies; wild oat, green foxtail, and cleavers species were
predicted at greatest risk in the subhumid Parkland region. This study
confirms the first occurrence of a GR weed in western Canada. Future
research on GR kochia will include monitoring, biology and ecology, fitness,
mechanism of resistance, and best management practices.
The Darwin region in northern Australia has experienced rapid population growth in recent years, and with it, an increased incidence of melioidosis. Previous studies in Darwin have associated the environmental presence of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, with anthropogenic land usage and proximity to animals. In our study, we estimated the occurrence of B. pseudomallei and Burkholderia spp. relatives in faecal matter of wildlife, livestock and domestic animals in the Darwin region. A total of 357 faecal samples were collected and bacteria isolated through culture and direct DNA extraction after enrichment in selective media. Identification of B. pseudomallei, B. ubonensis, and other Burkholderia spp. was carried out using TTS1, Bu550, and recA BUR3–BUR4 quantitative PCR assays, respectively. B. pseudomallei was detected in seven faecal samples from wallabies and a chicken. B. cepacia complex spp. and Pandoraea spp. were cultured from wallaby faecal samples, and B. cenocepacia and B. cepacia were also isolated from livestock animals. Various bacteria isolated in this study represent opportunistic human pathogens, raising the possibility that faecal shedding contributes to the expanding geographical distribution of not just B. pseudomallei but other Burkholderiaceae that can cause human disease.
Objectives: Connectionist theories of brain function took hold with the seminal contributions of Norman Geschwind a half century ago. Modern neuroimaging techniques have expanded the scientific interest in the study of brain connectivity to include the intact as well as disordered brain. Methods: In this review, we describe the most common techniques used to measure functional and structural connectivity, including resting state functional MRI, diffusion MRI, and electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography coherence. We also review the most common analytical approaches used for examining brain interconnectivity associated with these various imaging methods. Results: This review presents a critical analysis of the assumptions, as well as methodological limitations, of each imaging and analysis approach. Conclusions: The overall goal of this review is to provide the reader with an introduction to evaluating the scientific methods underlying investigations that probe the human connectome. (JINS, 2016, 22, 105–119)