To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
CT findings in 17 patients and MRI in one patient with post partum psychiatric disorder (PPPD; psychosis: n = 17, depressive neurosis: n = 1) were compared with randomly selected CT scans in non-PPPD patients matched for age and sex. In the PPPD group, 13 examinations (controls: 8) revealed one or several abnormal findings such as sulcal widening, ventricular enlargement and asymmetry. There was a higher prevalence of abnormal CT/MRI findings in the PPPD group (trend, P < 0.1).
Research on neurobiologic underpinnings of psychotherapy in depression is still sparse, particularly in psychodynamic oriented research. At present, there is insufficient data on neurobiologic parameters that could allow a targeted use of therapeutic interventions. One reason for this is the methodological difficulty of investigating complex and individual phenomena relevant to the psychotherapeutic process with functional neuroimaging techniques. The Zurich Depression Study takes up this strong research need developing a pioneer study design.
An individualized neuroimaging paradigm was developed based on the MIPQS (Maladaptive Interpersonal Q-Sort (Zimmermann et al., accepted), a self report instrument derived from the OPD-2 axis interpersonal relations (Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis 2, Arbeitskreis OPD, 2006). Visual stimuli were developed and tested that systematically illustrate interpersonal behaviour patterns (Interpersonal Relations Picture Set (IRPS)). They are employed in an individualized fMRI experiment. The experiment was validated with ten healthy study participants
Preliminary results suggest that the experimental paradigm is an accurate method to be employed in psychotherapy research with depressed patients. Specific hemodynamic activation patterns observed during the individualized fMRI task involve brain regions commonly identified as playing a role in emotion processing and autobiographic memory. A final overview of these first results will be given at the EPA 2014 congress.
Some evidence suggests that heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback might be an effective way to treat anxiety and stress symptoms. To examine the effect of HRV biofeedback on symptoms of anxiety and stress, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies extracted from PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library.
The search identified 24 studies totaling 484 participants who received HRV biofeedback training for stress and anxiety. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis.
The pre-post within-group effect size (Hedges' g) was 0.81. The between-groups analysis comparing biofeedback to a control condition yielded Hedges' g = 0.83. Moderator analyses revealed that treatment efficacy was not moderated by study year, risk of study bias, percentage of females, number of sessions, or presence of an anxiety disorder.
HRV biofeedback training is associated with a large reduction in self-reported stress and anxiety. Although more well-controlled studies are needed, this intervention offers a promising approach for treating stress and anxiety with wearable devices.
A new generation of solar instruments provides improved spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution, thus facilitating a better understanding of dynamic processes on the Sun. High-resolution observations often reveal multiple-component spectral line profiles, e.g., in the near-infrared He i 10830 Å triplet, which provides information about the chromospheric velocity and magnetic fine structure. We observed an emerging flux region, including two small pores and an arch filament system, on 2015 April 17 with the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ of the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS) situated at the 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. We discuss this method of obtaining fast (one per minute) spectral scans of the solar surface and its potential to follow dynamic processes on the Sun. We demonstrate the performance of the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ by tracking chromospheric high-velocity features in the arch filament system.
The presence of multiple fields during inflation might seed a detectable amount of non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbations, which in turn becomes observable in present data sets like the cosmic microwave background (CMB) or the large scale structure (LSS). Within this proceeding we present a fully analytic method to infer inflationary parameters from observations by exploiting higher-order statistics of the curvature perturbations. To keep this analyticity, and thereby to dispense with numerically expensive sampling techniques, a saddle-point approximation is introduced whose precision has been validated for a numerical toy example. Applied to real data, this approach might enable to discriminate among the still viable models of inflation.
In February 2013, the LEECH (LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt) survey began its 100-night campaign from the Large Binocular Telescope atop Mount Graham in Arizona. LEECH neatly complements other high-contrast planet imaging efforts by observing stars in L' band (3.8 microns) as opposed to the shorter wavelength near-infrared bands (1–2.3 microns). This part of the spectrum offers deeper mass sensitivity for intermediate age (several hundred Myr-old) systems, since their Jovian-mass planets radiate predominantly in the mid-infrared. In this proceedings, we present the science goals for LEECH and a preliminary contrast curve from some early data.
The effects of antidepressants for treating depressive disorders have been overestimated because of selective publication of positive trials. Reanalyses that include unpublished trials have yielded reduced effect sizes. This in turn has led to claims that antidepressants have clinically insignificant advantages over placebo and that psychotherapy is therefore a better alternative. To test this, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing psychotherapy with pill placebo.
Ten 10 studies comparing psychotherapies with pill placebo were identified. In total, 1240 patients were included in these studies. For each study, Hedges’ g was calculated. Characteristics of the studies were extracted for subgroup and meta-regression analyses.
The effect of psychotherapy compared to pill placebo at post-test was g = 0.25 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14–0.36, I2 = 0%, 95% CI 0–58]. This effect size corresponds to a number needed to treat (NNT) of 7.14 (95% CI 5.00–12.82). The psychotherapy conditions scored 2.66 points lower on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) than the placebo conditions, and 3.20 points lower on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Some indications for publication bias were found (two missing studies). We found no significant differences between subgroups of the studies and in meta-regression analyses we found no significant association between baseline severity and effect size.
Although there are differences between the role of placebo in psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy research, psychotherapy has an effect size that is comparable to that of antidepressant medications. Whether these effects should be deemed clinically relevant remains open to debate.
We demonstrate that the anisotropic optical response of metal (cobalt) slanted columnar thin films (STF) at THz frequencies strongly depends on the dielectric properties of the dielectric ambient surrounding the slanted columnar thin films. An effective medium dielectric function approach is used to describe the combined optical response of metal slanted columnar thin film and dielectric ambient. Our observations indicate that metal (cobalt) slanted columnar thin films can be used as sensors which will enable detection and characterization of minute amounts of dielectrics at THz frequencies, such as for flow-based detection of liquid chemical constituents.
Although predictions suggest that ocean acidification will significantly impact polar oceans within 20–30 years, there is limited information regarding present-day pH dynamics of the Southern Ocean. Here, we present novel high-frequency observations of pH collected during spring of 2010 using SeaFET pH sensors at three locations under fast sea ice in the southern Ross Sea. During these deployments in McMurdo Sound, baseline pH ranged between 8.019–8.045, with low to moderate overall variation (0.043–0.114 units) on the scale of hours to days. The variation was predominantly in the direction of increased pH relative to baseline observations. Estimates of aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) were > 1 with no observations of subsaturation. Time series records such as these are significant to the Antarctic science community; this information can be leveraged towards framing more environmentally relevant laboratory experiments aimed at assessing the vulnerability of Antarctic species to ocean acidification. In addition, increased spatial and temporal coverage of pH datasets may reveal ecologically significant patterns. Specifically, whether such variation in natural ocean pH dynamics may drive local adaptation to pH variation or provide refugia for populations of marine calcifiers in a future, acidifying ocean.
Four matrix-phase crystallographic directions of IN718 are investigated by in situ tensile tests using neutron diffraction. The elastic diffraction constants for all directions measured are compared to theoretical values calculated by the Kröner model. The differences between the microscopic and the macroscopic material response are given. The accumulation of microstrains in the different crystallographic directions is discussed. A comparison between the results of a single phase material (ingot IN718) and two differently thermal treated multiphase materials is presented.
Previous studies investigating attentional biases in social anxiety disorder (SAD) have yielded mixed results. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies using the dot-probe paradigm in non-anxious participants have shown that the P1 component is sensitive to visuospatial attention towards emotional faces. We used a dot-probe task in conjunction with high-density ERPs and source localization to investigate attentional biases in SAD.
Twelve SAD and 15 control participants performed a modified dot-probe task using angry–neutral and happy–neutral face pairs. The P1 component elicited by face pairs was analyzed to test the hypothesis that SAD participants would display early hypervigilance to threat-related cues. The P1 component to probes replacing angry, happy or neutral faces was used to evaluate whether SAD participants show either sustained hypervigilance or decreased visual processing of threat-related cues at later processing stages.
Compared to controls, SAD participants showed relatively (a) potentiated P1 amplitudes and fusiform gyrus (FG) activation to angry–neutral versus happy–neutral face pairs; (b) decreased P1 amplitudes to probes replacing emotional (angry and happy) versus neutral faces; and (c) higher sensitivity (d′) to probes following angry–neutral versus happy–neutral face pairs. SAD participants also showed significantly shorter reaction times (RTs) to probes replacing angry versus happy faces, but no group differences emerged for RT.
The results provide electrophysiological support for early hypervigilance to angry faces in SAD with involvement of the FG, and reduced visual processing of emotionally salient locations at later stages of information processing, which might be a manifestation of attentional avoidance.
The West Antarctic Peninsula region is an important source of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) in the Southern Ocean. From 1980–2004 abundance and concentration of phytoplankton and zooplankton, krill reproductive and recruitment success and seasonal sea ice extent here were significantly correlated with the atmospheric Southern Oscillation Index and exhibited three- to five-year frequencies characteristic of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability. This linkage was associated with movements of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front and Boundary, a changing influence of Antarctic Circumpolar Current and Weddell Sea waters, and eastward versus westward flow and mixing processes that are consistent with forcing by the Antarctic Dipole high-latitude climate mode. Identification of hydrographic processes underlying ecosystem variability presented here were derived primarily from multi-disciplinary data collected during 1990–2004, a period with relatively stable year-to-year sea ice conditions. These results differ from the overwhelming importance of seasonal sea ice development previously established using 1980–1996 data, a period marked by a major decrease in sea ice from the Antarctic Peninsula region in the late 1980s. These newer results reveal the more subtle consequences of ENSO variability on biological responses. They highlight the necessity of internally consistent long-term multidisciplinary datasets for understanding ecosystem variability and ultimately for establishing well-founded ecosystem management. Furthermore, natural environmental variability associated with interannual- and decadal-scale changes in ENSO forcing must be considered when assessing impacts of climate warming in the Antarctic Peninsula–Weddell Sea region.
The change of the visible light ellipsometric parameters and mechanical harmonic frequencies of a hydrophobic gold surface attached to a quartz crystal are measured in aqueous solution during deposition of synperonic polymer thin film. The ellipsometry data reveal the amount of polymer mass attached to the surface, while the mechanical resonance shifts are caused by the total mass attached to the surface. Analysis of the combined ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance data reveal that the polymer thin film has a high water content, and we determine in-situ, for the first time, the porosity, or the water content, of a polymer thin film in aqueous solution.
We report on fabrication, structural and infrared optical characterization of nanostructure aluminum sculptured thin films prepared by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) and controlled substrate motion on p-type silicon. We discuss two structures, one with plate-like and one with screw-like (chiral) morphology. While the plate-like sample possesses a metal Drude behavior in the infrared spectral range, the chiral nanowire sample behaves non-metallic and reveals a series of intriguing resonances, which are equally spaced in frequency by ∼7.5 THz. We suggest that formation of 3D nano resonator circuits consisting of inductances and capacitances has occurred within the screw-like conductive aluminum wire sample, which might be responsible for the observed resonances. We suggest conductive GLAD nanostructures in combination with Schottky diodes to facilitate active or passive THz detector and transmitter devices.