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In research on insect immunity, bacterial antigens were injected into Galleria mellonella L. larvae (Stephens, 1959). It was suspected that the quality and quantity of the blood, or hemolymph, might differ if the larvae were obtained from different sources. This note reports the effects of food and storage on the specific gravity and osmotic pressure of the blood, and of storage on the blood volume.
Heterogeneity is observed in the patterns of cognition in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Such heterogeneity might suggest the involvement of different etiological pathways or different host responses to pathology. A total of 627 subjects with mild/moderate AD underwent cognitive assessment with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2). Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed on cognition subscale data to identify and characterize cognitive subgroups. Clinical, demographic, and genetic factors were explored for association with class membership. LCA suggested the existence of four subgroups; one group with mild and another with severe global impairment across the cognitive domains, one group with primary impairments in attention and construction, and another group with primary deficits in memory and orientation. Education, disease duration, age, Apolipoprotein E-ε4 (APOE ε4) status, gender, presence of grasp reflex, white matter changes, and early or prominent visuospatial impairment were all associated with class membership. Our results support the existence of heterogeneity in patterns of cognitive impairment in AD. Our observation of classes characterized by predominant deficits in attention/construction and memory respectively deserves further exploration as does the association between membership in the attention/construction class and APOE ε4 negative status. (JINS, 2010, 16, 233–243.)
Anhydrobiosis, or life without water, is the remarkable ability of certain types of plants and animals to survive almost total dehydration. This phenomenon requires a coordinated series of events within the cells of anhydrobiotes that protect their cellular components, particularly proteins and lipid membranes, from damage caused by the removal of water. Much of what is now understood about preserving biological samples during drying was learned by studying naturally desiccation-tolerant organisms and extended using model systems such as phospholipid vesicles. Most anhydrobiotic organisms accumulate disaccharides in their cells and tissues during the dehydration process. These carbohydrates, usually sucrose or trehalose, satisfy two criteria that appear to be necessary for protecting membranes during desiccation and during storage in the dry state. These requirements include: (1) depression of the gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition temperature (Tm) in the dehydrated lipid to a temperature at or near that of the hydrated lipid, a process that appears to require a direct interaction between the carbohydrates and the lipid molecules of the membrane; and (2) formation of a carbohydrate glass with a relatively high glass transition temperature, leading to inhibition of fusion between the vesicles.
The dissolution of the thorium analogue of brannerite (ThTi2O6-I) and U(IV)/U(V) doped Th-brannerite (Th0.97U0.03Ti2O6-II and Th0.955U0.03Ca0.015Ti2O6-III) in aqueous media under atmospheric conditions has been studied to elucidate the effects of pH and uranium valence state on the dissolution rate.
The dissolution of I is nearly stoichiometric but slightly preferential release of U occurs for II and preferential release of Ca and U occur for III. The V-shape pH dependence previously observed for U-brannerite only occurs for U (not other matrix elements) for II, indicating that the pH dependence is related to the U oxidation state upon dissolution. The normalised U dissolution rates of III are nearly an order of magnitude higher than those of II for pH values over 3, suggesting brannerite is less durable with U(V) doping. TEM examination of specimens after leaching revealed few surface alteration products, which is consistent with the nearly stoichiometric dissolution of thorium brannerite.
The cw absorption, steady state photoluminescence (PL), photoinduced absorption (PA), PL-detected magnetic resonance (PLDMR), and the time resolved PL of a novel polyfluorene (PF) prepared with bulky polyphenylene dendrimer substituents are compared with those of (PF) with ethyl-hexyl substituents. We show that the dendronic sidechains suppress the contribution from unwanted low energetic emission, yielding a polymer with pure blue emission. The sidechains also strongly alter the dynamics of the excited entities. In particular, the time-resolved PL and temperature-dependence of the cw PL from 20-320 K reveal distinct singlet exciton (SE) dynamics in the polymer films, while the behavior in solution is essentially the same. However, the PA results show that the dynamics of polarons and triplet excitons (TEs) are similar, and the PLDMR shows that the interaction between the SEs and polarons are also similar.
Blood residues have been microscopically and chemically detected on fluted projectile points from eastern Beringia. From these residues a variety of large mammal species, including mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), have been identified using biochemical and molecular-biological methods. This is the first time a direct association has been made between the use of fluted projectile points and human predation of extinct fauna and other large Pleistocene mammals in arctic and subarctic North America. This suggests the northern fluted-point assemblages are part of the Paleoindian big-game hunting tradition that was widespread in North America at the close of the Pleistocene.
Perovskite and zirconolite are two of the major phases of the Synroc titanate mineral assemblage. Their aqueous durability under a range of pH conditions at 90°C has been examined. Solution analysis, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction have been used to investigate the dissolution behaviour of these phases, and a perovskite phase doped with Nd, Sr and Al, using buffered solutions at pH levels of 2.1, 3.7, 6.1, 7.9 and 12.9. After 43 days of leaching, Ca and Ti extractions from perovskite and zirconolite show only a weak pH-dependence.
SEM investigation of the samples leached at pH 2.1, 6.1 and 12.9 showed that a titanaceous surface layer formed on the perovskite specimens. XRD analysis of the perovskite samples showed that anatase formed on the leached surface at acidic and neutral pHs, but not under alkaline conditions, and that minor amounts of rutile also formed. In the leached perovskite specimens doped with Nd, Sr and Al, no rutile was found by XRD and anatase was only detected in the sample leached at pH 2.1. There were no detectable changes in the leached zirconolite samples examined by SEM and XRD.
By definition, half of all interconnects fail before the measured mean time to failure (t50) is reached. To predict early failures the basic reactions occurring in the metallization and its environment must be understood. To this end, fatal interconnect failure sites were characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and backscattered scanning electron microscopy. CVD silicon dioxide passivation layer/fatal void interfaces of typical early failure voids were characterized and compared to a typical late failure void interface. The topographies of these fatal voids were also quantitatively compared to increase our understanding of early failure sites and electromigration.
Absolute dating of rock paintings has always used an indirect means, generally by dating material in strata sealing or overlying the pictures. AMS dating of very small carbon samples now allows direct determination of the age of an organic portion in the matter of the picture itself.
We report here the first radiocarbon dating of blood residues on prehistoric stone tools. The residues found on two stone artifacts were subjected to various exploratory biochemical techniques to identify the species from which they were derived and to separate a suitable sample for dating by accelerator mass spectrometry. Although these techniques need much further development and detailed testing, the ages obtained in this first study were consistent with other data, indicating that the concept is viable. For the first time, the time of use of stone tools has been found directly, rather than by stratigraphic or other archaeologic inferential techniques.
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