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Previous research has shown that individuals suffering from depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) seem to have inhibitory control deficits compared with healthy controls. However, few studies have been conducted in Spanish-speaking countries. Thus, this study aims to analyze the performance on the Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT) between groups of Colombian participants with clinical levels of depression and GAD symptoms and a nonclinical control group. According to previous research, we expected to find significant differences in inhibitory control among groups. An ex post facto design was implemented. The SCWT was administered to a total sample of 105 individuals (64.8% women, M = 22.94 years, SD = 4.62), including 27 depressed and 15 anxious participants according to their scores on the Personal Health Questionnaire–9 and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder–7, respectively. Bayesian t-tests showed that depressed participants showed the same processing speed but lower scores on inhibitory control than healthy controls, BF = 13.70, δ = 0.50, 95% CI [0.08, 0.94]. Conversely, anxious participants showed deficits in processing speed, SCWT-Word: BF = 16.19, δ = 0.68, 95% CI [0.15, 1.24]; SCWT-Color: BF = 5.98, δ = 0.50, 95% CI [–0.01, 1.04], but not in inhibitory control compared with the nonanxious counterparts. This study provides preliminary evidence concerning the inhibitory control deficits in Colombian depressed individuals and processing speed deficits in those experiencing clinical levels of GAD symptoms.
Interactions between smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and biomaterials must not result in phenotype changes as this may generate uncontrolled multiplication processes and occlusions in vascular grafts. The aim of this study was to relate the hydrolytic stability and biocompatibility of polyurethanes (PUs) on SMCs. A higher polycaprolactone (PCL) concentration was found to improve the hydrolytic stability of the material and the adhesion of SMCs. A material with 5% polyethylene glycol, 90% PCL, and 5% pentaerythritol presented high cell viability and adhesion, suggesting a contractile phenotype in SMCs depending on the morphology. Nevertheless, all PUs retained their elastic modulus over 120 days, similar to the collagen of native arteries (~10 MPa). Furthermore, aortic SMCs did not present toxicity (viability over 80%) and demonstrated adherence without any abnormal cell multiplication processes, which is ideal for the function to be fulfiled in situ in the vascular grafts.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Determination of antibodies against ToRCH antigens at the beginning of pregnancy allows assessment of both the maternal immune status and the risks to an adverse pregnancy outcome. Age-standardised seroprevalences were determined in sera from 1009 women of childbearing age residing in Mexico, Brazil, Germany, Poland, Turkey or China using a multiparametric immunoblot containing antigen substrates for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2), Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia trachomatis, parvovirus B19, Treponema pallidum and varicella zoster virus (VZV). Seroprevalences for antibodies against HSV-1 were >90% in samples from Brazil and Turkey, whereas the other four countries showed lower mean age-adjusted seroprevalences (range: 62.5–87.9%). Samples from Brazilian women showed elevated seroprevalences of antibodies against HSV-2 (40.1%), C. trachomatis (46.8%) and B. pertussis (56.6%) compared to the other five countries. Seroprevalences of anti-T. gondii antibodies (0.5%) and anti-parvovirus B19 antibodies (7.5%) were low in samples from Chinese women, compared to the other five countries. Samples from German women revealed a low age-standardised seroprevalence of anti-CMV antibodies (28.8%) compared to the other five countries. These global differences in immune status of women in childbearing age advocate country-specific prophylaxis strategies to avoid infection with ToRCH pathogens.
During the first months of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic in 2020, Spain implemented an initial lockdown period on 15 March followed by a strengthened lockdown period on 30 March when only essential workers continued to commute to work. However, little is known about the epidemic dynamics in different age groups during these periods.
We used the daily number of coronavirus 2019 cases (by date of symptom onset) reported to the National Epidemiological Surveillance Network among individuals aged 15–19 years through 65–69 years. For each age group g, we computed the proportion PrE(g) of individuals in age group g among all reported cases aged 15–69 years during the pre-lockdown period (1−10 March 2020) and the corresponding proportion PrL(g) during two lockdown periods (initial: 25 March−3 April; strengthened: 8–17 April 2020). For each lockdown period, we computed the proportion ratios PR(g) = PrL(g)/PrE(g). For each pair of age groups g1, g2, PR(g1)>PR(g2) implies a relative increase in the incidence of detected SARS-CoV-2 infection in the age group g1 compared with g2 for the lockdown period vs. the pre-lockdown period.
For the initial lockdown period, the highest PR values were in age groups 50–54 years (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12,1.30) and 55–59 years (PR = 1.19; 1.11,1.27). For the second lockdown period, the highest PR values were in age groups 15–19 years (PR = 1.26; 0.95,1.68) and 50–54 years (PR = 1.20; 1.09,1.31).
Our results suggest that different outbreak control measures led to different changes in the relative incidence by age group. During the initial lockdown period, when non-essential work was allowed, individuals aged 40–64 years, particularly those aged 50–59 years, had a higher relative incidence compared with the pre-lockdown period. Younger adults/older adolescents had an increased relative incidence during the later, strengthened lockdown. The role of different age groups during the epidemic should be considered when implementing future mitigation efforts.
Maternal milk consumption can cause changes in the mammary epithelium of the offspring that result in the expression of molecules involved in the induction of differentiation, reducing the risk of developing mammary cancer later in life. We previously showed that animals that maintained a higher intake of maternal milk had a lower incidence of mammary cancer. In the present study, we evaluated one of the possible mechanisms by which the consumption of maternal milk could modify the susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis. We used Sprague Dawley rats reared in litters of 3 (L3), 8 (L8), or 12 (L12) pups per mother in order to generate a differential consumption of milk. Whole mounts of mammary glands were performed to analyze the changes in morphology. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we analyzed the expression of mammary Pinc, Tbx3, Stat6, and Gata3 genes. We use the real-time methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction method to assess the methylation status of Stat6 and Gata3 CpG sites. Our findings show an increase in the size of the epithelial tree and a smaller number of ducts called terminal end buds in L3 vs. L12. We observed an increased expression of mRNA of Stat6, Gata3, Tbx3, and a lower expression of Pinc in L3 with respect to L12. Stat6 and Gata3 are more methylated in the CpG islands of the promoter analyzed in L12 vs. L3. In conclusion, the increased consumption of maternal milk during the postnatal stage generates epigenetic and morphological changes associated with the differentiation of the mammary gland.
Close double neutron stars (DNSs) have been observed as Galactic radio pulsars, while their mergers have been detected as gamma-ray bursts and gravitational wave sources. They are believed to have experienced at least one common envelope episode (CEE) during their evolution prior to DNS formation. In the last decades, there have been numerous efforts to understand the details of the common envelope (CE) phase, but its computational modelling remains challenging. We present and discuss the properties of the donor and the binary at the onset of the Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) leading to these CEEs as predicted by rapid binary population synthesis models. These properties can be used as initial conditions for detailed simulations of the CE phase. There are three distinctive populations, classified by the evolutionary stage of the donor at the moment of the onset of the RLOF: giant donors with fully convective envelopes, cool donors with partially convective envelopes, and hot donors with radiative envelopes. We also estimate that, for standard assumptions, tides would not circularise a large fraction of these systems by the onset of RLOF. This makes the study and understanding of eccentric mass-transferring systems relevant for DNS populations.
The giant gypsum crystals of Naica cave have fascinated scientists since their discovery in 2000. Human activity has changed the microclimate inside the cave, making scientists wonder about the potential environmental impact on the crystals. Over the last 9 years, we have studied approximately 70 samples. This paper reports on the detailed chemical–structural characterization of the impurities present at the surface of these crystals and the experimental simulations of their potential deterioration patterns. Selected samples were studied by petrography, optical and electronic microscopy, and laboratory X-ray diffraction. 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, X-ray μ-fluorescence, and X-ray μ-absorption near-edge structure were used to identify the impurities and their associated phases. These impurities were deposited during the latest stage of the gypsum crystal formation and have afterward evolved with the natural high humidity. The simulations of the behavior of the crystals in microclimatic chambers produced crystal dissolution by 1–4% weight fraction under high CO2 concentration and permanent fog, and gypsum phase dehydration under air and CO2 gaseous environment. Our work suggests that most surface impurities are of natural origin; the most significant anthropogenic damage on the crystals is the extraction of water from the caves.
The excitability of local surface plasmon modes in radial trimers composed of gold nanorods was mapped using hyperspectral cathodoluminescence (CL) in the scanning electron microscope. In symmetric trimers, the local plasmon resonances could be excited most effectively at the ends of individual rods. Introducing asymmetry into the structure breaks the degeneracy of the dipole modes and changes the excitability of transverse dipole modes in different directions. CL in the scanning electron microscope has great potential to interrogate individual nanophotonic structures and is a complement to electron energy loss spectroscopy and optical microscopy.
Until now, no reliable biological markers of risk and relapse in substance-dependent patients have been identified. The yawn-inducing test with apomorphine has been proposed as a marker of the functional status of the dopaminergic system and therefore a predictor of suffering an addiction or predisposition to relapse.
Studying the safety and efficacy of apomorphine test as a predictor of relapse in intranasal cocaine dependent, diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR.
We performed the test of apomorphine at the beginning (day 1) and end (day 11/12) of a detoxification program in 33 patients (29 men). The majority of patients relapsed after 22 weeks of follow up (87% relapse). The average yawns in the sample were 10.9 ± 9.3 in the initial test (Apo 1) and 10.2 ± 10.2 in the final test (Apo 2). The 42% of patients relapsed early (before 4 weeks) and 45% late (afther 4 weeks). 58% of the sample (N = 19), which did not fall belatedly filled an average of 8.0 yawns in Apo1 and 8.1 on Apo2 and 42% who did so early (N = 14), 14,8 in Apo1 and 14.6 in Apo2. Therefore there are an increased number of yawns in patients with early relapse. No important side effects were reported.
Patients with early relapse have a higher number of yawns that those falling late or abstainers The apomorphine test is a safe test and it is a readily applicable tool in clinical practice and may be a biological marker of risk.
To analyse the consequences of broadening DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) on the utilization of health care resources and corresponding costs.
Multicentre, prospective and observational study conducted in outpatient psychiatric clinics selected at random and weighted by geographical density of population. Patients with GAD according to DSM-IV criteria and subjects with anxiety symptoms fulfilling broader criteria were compared. Broadening criteria was considered 1-month of excessive or non-excessive worry and only 2 associated symptoms listed on DSM-IV for GAD. Socio-demographic data, medical history and health care resources and corresponding costs were recorded during a 6-month period.
A total of 3,549 patients were systematically recruited; 12.8% excluded because not fulfilling inclusion criteria, 1,815 patients in DSM-IV criteria group (DG) and 1,264 in broad criteria group (BG). Both groups were similar on their sociodemographic characteristics at baseline. Type of treatments prescribed at psychiatric clinics during the study were similar in frequency; anti-depressives (77.0% in DG vs. 75.3% in BG, ns), benzodiazepines (71.5% vs. 67.2% respectively, ns), and anti-convulsants (72.1% vs. 67.0% respectively, ns). Health care resources utilization were statistically reduced to a similar extent in both groups as a consequences of treatments yielding to a cost-of-illness in the 6-month period of 1,196 (1,158) and 1,112 (874), respectively; p=0.304.
In a large sample of subjects, broadening of GAD criteria could lead to earlier diagnosis that would not be associated necessarily to an increase in health care resources utilization or costs to the National Health System.
To determine the association between functional impairment, as reported in a lay-administered structured interview (CIDI), and severity of depression, depressive symptoms and risk factors for depression.
We undertook a cross-sectional study of 5442 consecutive attendees at general practices in seven Spanish provinces participating in the PredictD-Spain study on predictors of depression. Participants were administered the depression section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI 2.1), allowing diagnoses by the ICD-10 and DSM-IV classifications for depressive episodes. Impairment was measured using the CIDI question about whether symptoms seriously interfered with important areas of functioning, such as work or looking after the house and family. We measured a set of 39 known risk factors for depression.
Firstly, the 6-month prevalence of a depressive episode according to ICD-10 was 28.7% (1563) and of major depression according to DSM-IV it was 13.6% (742). Secondly, out of the 1563 patients with a depressive episode according to ICD-10, nearly half (47.9%; n=749) had no impairment in important areas of functioning.
As the ICD-10 criteria for depressive diagnoses do not include the criteria that symptoms cause impairment in social, occupational or other important areas of functioning, a large number of false positive cases are included in reported prevalence rates; and secondly, the measurement of functional impairment, at least operationalized using a lay-administered structured interview such as CIDI, is not enough, in epidemiological research studies, to assess the clinical importance of depressive symptoms.
Describe the prevalence and characteristics of psychotic symptoms in the context of cocaine injection use in a harm reduction program.
To find associations between intravenous cocaine use and other drug use in cocaine dependent patients suffering from cocaine induced psychosis (CIP). Cannabis was found to be a risk factor for developing CIP in non-intravenous cocaine dependence.
During a period of 6 months professionals from our Outpatient Drug Clinic completed a confidential questionnaire to describe the adverse clinical effects following cocaine injection. It included age, gender, ethnic group, daily consumption rate and other drugs used in the last 30 days.
Survey was achieved with a sample of 75 Caucasians patients, 69 men and 6 women with an average age of 32 years old. Seventeen percent (13/75) had psychotic symptoms, of which 84% (11/13) had hallucinations (visuals 4/11, auditive 7/11 and kinaesthetic 2/11), 15% (2/13) illusions.
Eighteen percent (14/75) had stereotypy movements and 3% (2/75) had aggressive behaviour. Drugs used by CIP patients, the previous 30 days were: 61% (8/13) cannabis, 31% (4/13) opiates and 15% (2/13) alcohol.
Intravenous cocaine use produced acute psychotic symptoms in 17% of our patients, of which 61% used cannabis. Despite the ethical and practical implications of this type of study, it is necessary to do more observational studies with bigger surveys to conclude these results with statistically significance.
In Spain, consumption of psychotropic drugs is high and benzodiazepines represent 74% of the total. His prescription in primary care is very common and their use continues to grow. They are safe and effective drugs, but patients with prolonged use are elaborating the most adverse effects, particularly the dependency.
Descriptive ans cross-sectional.
Primary Health Care.
We seleted 202 patients treated with benzodiazepines, consecutive sample, belonging to the health center Los Barrio who were seen in consultation during 2009.
We conducted through a questionnaire that cointained the treatment and demographic characteristics.
We detect a frequency of use of benzodiazepines 9% (95% CI 4,7-12,1%). The profile of the consumer responds to middle-aged woman, with primary and housewives. Somatic diseases were associated in 72.6% (CI 67,2-77,5%) and had mental pathology at 59.7% (CI 53,9-65,3%). 35% (95% 29,6-40,6%) of prescribed benzodiazepines were clorazape dipotassium. Consumption was constant for over a year. The prescription from primary care represents 81% (95% 76,3-85,4%) and in 65% (CI 59,3-70,3%) is associated with other psychoactive drug.
In our area, highlights the prescription of benzodiazepines from primary care on demand and consumption during prolonged time. Interventions should be conducted on the prescription of benzodiazepines in medical and other interventions for patient support.
To elucidate the consequences of broadening DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), we examined the evolution of GAD symptoms in two groups of newly diagnosed patients; one group according to DSM-IV criteria and the other, according to broader criteria.
Multicentre, prospective and observational study conducted in outpatient psychiatric clinics. Patients with GAD according to DSM-IV criteria and subjects with anxiety symptoms fulfilling broader criteria were compared. Broadening criteria was considered 1-month of excessive or non-excessive worry and only 2 associated symptoms listed on DSM-IV for GAD. Socio-demographic data, medical history and functional outcome measures were collected three times during a 6-month period.
3,549 patients were systematically recruited; 12.8% excluded because not fulfilling inclusion criteria, 1,815 patients in DSM-IV group (DG) and 1,264 in broad group (BG). Both groups were similar on their sociodemographic characteristics at baseline and most patients (about 80%), even newly diagnosed were exposed previously to pharmacological therapies (mainly benzodiazepines) of their anxiety symptoms. As a result of treatment at psychiatric clinics, the percentage of patients without symptoms of anxiety as per HAM-A scale were 49.0% and 58.0%, respectively at the 6 month visit (p=0.261). Similarly, responder rate (≥ 50% reduction of baseline scoring) were, respectively, 59.7% and 67.7% (p=0.103). Improvement in MADRS scores were observed in both group to a similar extent; 12.1 and 12.5 points average reduction respectively (p=0.264).
Broadening of GAD criteria could lead to earlier diagnosis that will benefit patients by starting appropriate treatment sooner.
Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed since the 1960, when they replaced barbiturics. Although there is no doubt about their efficacy in treating anxiety, insomnia or other psychiatric disorders, we should also take into account the fact that these drugs are easily misused.
In this work we analyze the intake of benzodiazepines among patients hospitalized due to medical problems.
Retrospective review of clinical histories of patients attended by the Drug Unit of the Psychiatry Service in the last twelve months. Bibliographical review of the theme. Data analyzed using the SPSS software 15.0 version.
45 patients were subjected to our survey, 41 of them male. 66% were HIV Positive patients, and the most frequent cause of hospitalization was pneumonia (51’1%). Most of the patients attended were drug abusers (see the graphic below). When the benzodiazepines abusers were asked how they obtained them, 40’6% recognized the got them without prescription, 25% said they got them legally, and 34’4 answered that they got them legally but also without prescription. 62’5% of the patients usually took alprazolam.
Benzodiazepine abuse, in particular alprazolam, is quiet common among the patients we see.
In half of the cases the use of benzodiazepines could have worsen the prognosis of the patients.
To analyse the effect of Pregabalin (PGB) on anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with refractory-severe Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and severe concomitant depressive disorder.
Post-hoc analysis of a multicentre, prospective and observational study conducted in outpatient psychiatric clinics to ascertain the impact of broadening GAD criteria. Men and women above 18 years, with GAD (DSM-IV criteria), PGB naïve and refractory to a previous course of benzodiazepines and/or anti-depressive drugs (minimum 3 months) and severe symptoms of anxiety (HAM-A ≥ 24) and depression (MADRS ≥ 35) were included. Changes in HAM-A and MADRS were assessed after 6 months of receiving PGB as per psychiatrist's judgement.
159 patients [69.2% women, 45.9 (12.6) years] fulfilled criteria for analysis. Respectively, 92% and 90% of subjects were previously exposed to benzodiazepines and anti-depressives before adding PGB [mean dose: 223.1 (126.3) mg/day]. PGB therapy reduced both anxiety and depressive baseline symptoms by a mean of, respectively in HAM-A and MADRS scales, 57.9% (from 35.5±5.8 to 14.8±9.4; p< 0.001, effect size: 3.57) and 58.1% (from 39.4±4.3 to 16.5±10.3; p< 0.001, effect size: 5.33). As a result, the percentages of patients without symptoms of both anxiety and depression were 34.4% and 40.9%, respectively at the 6 month visit (p< 0.001 in all cases). Similarly, responder rates (≥ 50% reduction of baseline scoring) were 63.1% and 62.9%.
Despite limitations, Pregabalin therapy had a meaningful and significant effect of symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with severe refractory GAD and concomitant severe depressive disorder.