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Health-related fear is a normal and common response in the face of the global pandemic of COVID-19. Children and young people are frequently being exposed to messages about the threat to health, including from the media and authorities. Whilst for most, their anxiety will be proportionate to the threat, for some, existing pre-occupation with physical symptoms and illness will become more problematic. There is a growing body of evidence that health anxiety may occur in childhood, however much of the literature is taken from research using adult samples. This practitioner review aims to give an overview of the assessment and treatment of health-related worries in children and young people in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This review is based on the limited existing evidence in this population and the more substantial evidence base for treating health anxiety in adults. We consider the adaptations needed to ensure such interventions are developmentally appropriate.
Cameroon has experienced recurrent cholera epidemics with high mortality rates. In September 2009, epidemic cholera was detected in the Far North region of Cameroon and the reported case-fatality rate was 12%. We conducted village-, healthcare facility- and community-level surveys to investigate reasons for excess cholera mortality. Results of this investigation suggest that cholera patients who died were less likely to seek care, receive rehydration therapy and antibiotics at a healthcare facility, and tended to live further from healthcare facilities. Furthermore, use of oral rehydration salts at home was very low in both decedents and survivors. Despite the many challenges inherent to delivering care in Cameroon, practical measures could be taken to reduce cholera mortality in this region, including the timely provision of treatment supplies, training of healthcare workers, establishment of rehydration centres, and promotion of household water treatment and enhanced handwashing with soap.
Methods which aid and enhance the teaching of surgical procedures to trainees are beneficial to both trainer and trainee. In this article, we suggest a simple way of performing suction diathermy which allows the trainer to provide a template for the trainee to reproduce. Related articles have suggested the use of additional equipment, such as an endoscope; however, the method we describe requires no additional technical elements. Thus, it represents a sound and efficient teaching tool.
The process of endometrial decidualization is a key event with direct relevance to very early pregnancy as well as subsequent pregnancy outcome. This chapter reviews the signals and pathways that control the morphological and biochemical differentiation of resident endometrial fibroblasts into secretory decidual cells. It discusses the functions of these cells at the feto-maternal interface. Decidual transformation of endometrial stromal cells can be faithfully recapitulated in culture and these in vitro studies have yielded invaluable insights into the signal pathways and downstream transcription factors that govern this differentiation process. Decidualizing stromal cells play an important role in local immunomodulation in many ways. The emergence in human beings of a cyclic decidual process has several major clinical implications; the most obvious of which is menstruation and its associated disorders. Decidualizing stromal cells and other cellular components in the superficial endometrial layer take part in menstrual shedding.
Schopenhauer's early years in Berlin were punctuated by periods of discontentment and despair, and his unhappiness moved him to struggle with feelings of self-abandonment. In a revealing reflection recorded in his secret diary, the philosopher set out to steel his nerve and to return to himself:
When at times I felt unhappy, this was by virtue of a misunderstanding, of a flaw in my person. I then took myself to be other than I was and then lamented that other person's misery and distress, e.g., for a Privatdozent who does not become a professor and has no one to hear his lectures; or for the one of whom the philistines speak ill and the gossips spread stories; or for the defendant in an assault case; or for the lover who will not be heard by the girl with whom he is infatuated; or for the patient who is kept at home by illness; or to be other similar people who are affected by like miseries. I have not been any of these. All of this is strange cloth from which at most the coat had been made that I wore for a while and that I then discarded in exchange for another. But then who am I? The man who has written the World as Will and Representation and has provided a solution to the great problem of existence that perhaps will render obsolete all previous solutions, but which in any case will engage thinkers in the centuries to come. I am that man, and what could disturb him in the few years in which he has still to draw breath?
Dresden provided a safe haven for Schopenhauer's conflicted life. He abandoned Weimar, deeply wounded by his mother's rejection, and he sought refuge in this Saxon city of around fifty thousand souls, a city with which he was familiar even before his family reposed there for ten days at the close of the European tour. At that earlier time, he found the city “beautiful and interesting,” and he savored its picture gallery and robust natural beauty. It is likely that upon his return he revisited the “magnificent Catholic church” to re-experience its “glorious church music,” which moved the young man to attend High Mass twice in 1804. Much later, he would recommend the use of a large organ, reduced to the very limits of audibility, to constantly lay down the ground-bass and thereby to enhance the effect of the orchestra, “as is done in the Catholic church in Dresden.” Yet if his heart hurt from his experience with his mother, his head was alive, focused on color, the sunrise of the East, and the foundational ideas for his system of philosophy. In Dresden he would practice what he would soon preach; the head as the cure for the pangs of the heart and the intellect's triumph over the will. And although Dresden was his home for only fifty-two months, from the end of May 1814 to the end of September 1818, it became the permanent home ground for his philosophical thought.
Arthur Schopenhauer continues to be one of the most widely read philosophers outside of academe, and it is only a slight exaggeration to say that academics have paid him more attention in the last thirty years than they have in any period following the publication of his philosophical masterpiece, The World as Will and Representation, which appeared in December 1818. This remark, however, is not an exaggeration at all if it is restricted to Anglo-American scholars. Schopenhauer's broad popularity is relatively easy to understand, as is the resurgence of interest among scholars. In addition to addressing traditional topics in aesthetics, epistemology, ethics, logic, and metaphysics in the rigorous and specialized forms favored by philosophers, his fifty-year quest to discover and explain the meaning of the totality of experience led him to investigate almost every significant aspect of human experience. Ever the perennialist, he dealt with universal themes concerning the human condition, such as love, sex, suffering, death, the meaning and value of life, and redemption. He also explored phenomena neglected by many philosophers, including colors, genius, homosexuality, humor, madness, the metaphysics of music, the moral status of animals, mysticism, paranormal phenomena, and weeping. Always committed to the truth, he trailed its spurs wherever its track steered. Seldom worrying about writing to please, he stated the truth as he saw it. His voracious curiosity and cosmopolitan sensibilities made him the first major Western philosopher to seriously consider Eastern thought.
Arthur schopenhauer viewed himself as homeless. This sense of homelessness became the leitmotif of both his life and his philosophy. After the first five years of his life in Danzig, where he was born on 22 February 1788, his family fled the then free city to avoid Prussian control. From that point on, he said, “I have never acquired a new home.” He lived in Hamburg on and off for fourteen years, but he had his best times when he was away from that city. When he left Hamburg, he felt as if he were escaping a prison. He lived for four years in Dresden, but he would only view this city as the birthplace of his principal work, The World as Will and Representation. More than a decade in Berlin did nothing to give him a sense of belonging. He would angrily exclaim that he was no Berliner. After living as a noncitizen resident in Frankfurt am Main for the last twenty-eight years of his life, and after spending fifty years attempting to understand the nature and meaning of the world, he would ultimately conclude that the world itself was not his home. If one were to take this remark seriously, then even Danzig had not been his home. He was homeless from birth. But being homeless from birth did not mean that there was no point to his life. Schopenhauer would also conclude that from birth he had a mission in life.
Schopenhauer's tumultuous family life during the six months when he lived in his mother's home in Weimar was counterpoised by two events that would become monumental in the philosopher's life. The first was his breaking into Goethe's orbit, an event for which he had longed and that he had engineered, in part, by sending the poet his dissertation. The second was his introduction to Eastern thought, which was a matter of pure serendipity. In his curriculum vitae, Schopenhauer wrote of Goethe's honoring him with his friendship and intimate acquaintance, “which I count as the most delightful and fortunate event in my life.” It is curious, however, that he failed to mention the second event in the same document. But thirty-two years later, in another autobiographical reflection, he would mention the second. He encountered the orientalist Friedrich Majer, a friend and disciple of Herder. “At the same time [as his interactions with Goethe], without being asked, Friedrich Majer introduced me to Indian antiquity, which has been an essential influence on me.” Whereas Goethe initiated his relationship with the young philosopher at one of Johanna Schopenhauer's parties, exactly when and where in Weimar Majer introduced Schopenhauer to “Indian antiquity” is not clear.
Schopenhauer was awestruck by Goethe. As he suffered through the wretched days of his apprenticeship, he eagerly anticipated Johanna's reports of Goethe's appearances at her parties. During his first visit to Weimar in 1808, he was drawn to these parties simply to quietly observe the great man.
In his quest to solve 'the ever-disquieting riddle of existence', Schopenhauer explored almost every dimension of human existence, developing a darkly compelling worldview that found deep resonance in contemporary literature, music, philosophy, and psychology. This is the first comprehensive biography of Schopenhauer written in English. Placing him in his historical and philosophical contexts, David E. Cartwright tells the story of Schopenhauer's life to convey the full range of his philosophy. He offers a fully documented portrait in which he explores Schopenhauer's fractured family life, his early formative influences, his critical loyalty to Kant, his personal interactions with Fichte and Goethe, his ambivalent relationship with Schelling, his contempt for Hegel, his struggle to make his philosophy known, and his reaction to his late-arriving fame.
On 23 September 1818 Schopenhauer struck out, as planned, for Italy. He was excited to leave Dresden and the serious business of excavating for the philosopher's stone. He wrote to Goethe that he longed for the gentle clime of Italy and to enjoy the country that Dante described as “where yes resounds,” and where, he added, “the no, no of all literary journals would not reach me.” He had already heard a singular “no” in the only review of his On Vision and Colors. An anonymous reviewer had published a negative review in the Leipziger Litteratur-Zeitung, a journal that had already bashed Goethe's On the Theory of Colors a few years earlier. The sensation caused by his color theory, he told Goethe, was like throwing a stone into a bog – no ripples. Little did he realize that he would be tossing the philosopher's stone into the same bog. Just as he had told Brockhaus, he also told Goethe that his philosophy, which he still thought would appear at Michaelmas, was not simply the fruit of his time at Dresden, but to a certain measure, the fruit of his life. Again, he evoked Helvetius's observation that between the thirtieth and thirty-fifth years, all meaningful impressions about the world are fixed in one's mind, with everything that follows being simply the further development of those ideas. He reminded Goethe that he was now in his thirty-first year.